Mini Review
Volume 3 Issue 6 - 2020
Effect of Metformin Treatment on the Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Hari Baskar1*, Shazia Inayath Khatoon2, Shareefa Habeeba2, Mukilan D3, Nazima Fatima2, Noor US Sabah2, Mohammad Gayoor Khan4, Umama Yezdani2 and Karthikeyan Lakshmanan5
1Department of Pharmacy, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, MRM College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4Department of Pharmacy, Truba Institute of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
5Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
*Corresponding Author: Hari Baskar, Department of Pharmacy, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Received: April 29, 2020; Published: May 07, 2020




Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinological disorder of women characterised by menstrual abnormalities, hirsutism, anovulatory infertility with the presence of immature follicles in the enlarged ovaries. Metformin, a commonly used hypoglycemic agent, is employed in the treatment of PCOS since insulin resistance has been recognised as one of the contributing factors in the development of PCOS. Metformin also helps in maintaining proper ovulation by regulating the levels of LSH and FH. Use of Metformin in PCOS is associated with significant reduction in the serum levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic acid. Monitoring the levels of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic acid in PCOS patients with metformin therapy and providing them with proper Vitamin B supplementation will prevent the occurrence of these conditions.

Keywords: Metformin; PCOS; Vitamin B12; Folic Acid

References

  1. Purnima Jindal., et al. “Effect of Metformin on FSH, LH and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome”. The International Journal of Medical Research Professionals 5 (2016): 176-179.
  2. Stefano Palomba MD., et al. “Effects of Metformin with or Without Supplementation with Folate on Homocysteine Levels and Vascular Endothelium of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. Diabetes Care2 (2010): 246-251.
  3. Dhanalakshmi Ganesan., et al. “Effect of metformin combined therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome”. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2 (2011): 116-125.
  4. Esra Bulgan Kilicdag., et al. “Homocysteine levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin versus rosiglitazone: a randomized study”. Human Reproduction4 (2005): 894-899.
  5. Hany Lashen. “Role of metformin in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome”. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism 3 (2010): 117128.
  6. Howard Craig Zisser. “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Pregnancy: Is Metformin the Magic Bullet?” Diabetes Spectrum2 (2007): 85-89.
  7. Farquhar CM., et al. “The prevalence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound scanning in a population of randomly selected women”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 34 (1994): 67-72.
  8. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. “Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)”. Human Reproduction 19 (2004): 41-47.
  9. Hull MG. “Epidemiology of infertility and polycystic ovarian disease: endocrinological and demographic studies”. Gynecological Endocrinology 1 (1987): 235-245.
  10. Al-Inany H and Johnson N. “Drugs for anovulatory infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome”. British Medical Journal 332 (2006): 1461-1462.
  11. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. “Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome”. Human Reproduction 23 (2008): 462-477.
  12. Legro RS., et al. “Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome”. The New England Journal of Medicine 356 (2007): 551-566.
  13. Billa E., et al. “Metformin administration was associated with a modification of LH, prolactin and insulin secretion dynamics in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome”. Gynecological Endocrinology7 (2009): 427-434.
  14. Diamanti-Kandarakis E., et al. “A survey of the polycystic ovary syndrome in the Greek island of Lesbos: hormonal and metabolic profile”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 11 (1999): 4006-4011.
  15. Wijeyaratne CN., et al. “Clinical manifestations and insulin resistance (IR) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among South Asians and Caucasians: is there a difference?” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 3 (2002): 343-350.
  16. Balen AH., et al. “Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients”. Human Reproduction 8 (1995): 2107-2111.
  17. Glueck CJ., et al. “Incidence and treatment of metabolic syndrome in newly referred women with confirmed polycystic ovary syndrome”. Metabolism7 (2003): 908-915.
  18. De Leo V., et al. “Effect of Metformin on Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) I and IGF-Binding Protein I in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism4 (2000): 1598-1600.
  19. Baqer LS., et al. “Evaluation of the effect of metformin on hormone serum levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome”. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences6 (2015): 1574-1581.
  20. Ehrman DA., et al. “Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82 (1997): 524-530.
  21. Vincenzo DL., et al. “Metformin treatment is effective in obese teenage girls with PCOS”. Human Reproduction9 (2006): 2252-2256.
  22. Velazquez E., et al. “Menstrual cyclicity after metformin therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 90 (1997): 392-395.
  23. Kazerooni T and Dehghan-Kooshkghazi M. “Effects of metformin therapy on hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS”. Gynecological endocrinology1 (2003): 51-56.
  24. Moghett i P., et al. “Metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles, and insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, followed by open, long-term clinical evaluation”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85 (2000): 139-146.
  25. Pirwany IR., et al. “Effects of the insulin sensitizing drug metformin on ovarian function, follicular growth and ovulation rate in obese women with oligomenorrhoea”. Human Reproduction 14 (1999): 2963-2968.
  26. Morin-Papunen LC., et al. “Decreased serum leptin concentrations during metformin therapy in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83 (1998): 2566-2568.
  27. Velazquez EM., et al. “Metformin therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome reduces hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and systolic blood pressure, while facilitating normal menses and pregnancy”. Metabolism 43 (1994): 647-654.
  28. Pasquali R., et al. “Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85 (2000): 2767-2774.
  29. Glueck CJ., et al. “Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce first-trimester spontaneous abortion: A pilot study”. Fertility and Sterility 75 (2001): 46-52.
  30. Heard MJ., et al. “Pregnancies following use of metformin for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome”. Fertility and Sterility 77 (2002): 524-529.
Citation: Hari Baskar., et al. ““Effect of Metformin Treatment on the Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports 3.6 (2020): 19-22.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk