Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 2 - 2020
Essential Oil of Cultivated Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad Improves Activities and Genes Expression of Hepatoglycoregulatory Enzymes in Diabetic Rats
Gholamreza Shahsavari1,2, Hassan Ahmadvand1,2 and Mobin Khoshbin1*
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
2Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mobin Khoshbin, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
Received: November 12, 2019; Published: January 23, 2020


Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of cultivated Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) on activity and gene expression of hepatic glucokinase (GK), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in normal and diabetic rats. 

Methods: Thirty two wistar male rats were divided into four groups randomly; group one as control, group two as diabetic untreated, group three as sham treated with cultivated SKEO (100 mg/kg/d) in aqueous solution orally for 21 days, and group four as diabetic treated with cultivated SKEO (100 mg/kg/d) in aqueous solution orally for 21 days. After 21 days, animals were anaesthetized, liver were then removed immediately and used fresh or kept frozen until analysis of GK, GP and PEPCK activity and gene expression of GK, GP and PEPCK by using the quantitative real-time RT-PCR technique. 

Results: Hepatic GK activity and gene expression of GK in diabetic treated groups compared with diabetic untreated groups were significantly increased. Hepatic GP and PEPCK activity and gene expression of GP and PEPCK in diabetic treated groups compared with diabetic untreated groups were significantly decreased. Also, hepatic activity of GK, GP and PEPCK activity correlated positively with their gene expression. 

Conclusion: This study showed that SKEO might be a exert beneficial effects on activities of GK, GP and PEPCK and gene expression of GK, GP and PEPCK in diabetic rats. Therefore, SKEO may contribute to reduction of serum glucose, which seems to be related to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: Antihyperglycemic; Gene Expression; Glucokinase; Glycogen Phosphorylase; Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase; Satureja khuzestanica Essential Oil


  1. Amanlou M., et al. “An anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Saturega khuzestanica Jamzad extract”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 8.1 (2005): 102-106.
  2. Jamzad Z. “A new species of the genus Satureja (Labiatae) from Iran”. The Iranian Journal of Botany 6 (1994): 215-218.
  3. Ahmadvand H., et al. “Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats”. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 11 .4 (2012): 1219-1226.
  4. Zibaei M., et al. “Scolicidal effects of Olea europaea and Satureja Khuzestanica extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cysts”. The Korean Journal of Parasitology 50.1 (2012): 53-56.
  5. Safarnavadeh T ad Rastegarpanah M. “Antioxidants and infertility treatment, the role of Satureja Khuzestanica: A mini-systematic review”. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 9.2 (2011): 61-70.
  6. Ahmadvand H., et al. “Amelioration of altered antioxidant enzymes activity and glomerulosclerosis by coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced diabetic rats”. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 26.6 (2012): 476-482. 
  7. Bisschop PH., et al. “Autonomic regulation of hepatic glucose production”. Comprehensive Physiology 5.1 (2015): 147-165.
  8. Agius L. “New hepatic targets for glycemic control in diabetes”. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 21 (2007): 587-605.
  9. Piras A., et al. “Isolation of the volatile oil from Satureja thymbra by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: chemical composition and biological activity”. Natural Product Communications 6.10 (2011): 1523-1526.
  10. Saadat M., et al. “Alteration of rat hepatic glycogen phosphorylase and phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities by Satureja Khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7.4 (2004): 327-331.
  11. Ahmadvand H., et al. “Chemical composition of Vitex pseudo-negundo leavese essential oil”. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 6.11 (2014): 300-304.
  12. Ahmadvand H., et al. “Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Ferula-assa-foetida Leaves Essential Oil”. Iranian Journal of pharmacology and Therapeutics 12 (2013): 52-57.
  13. Grewal AS., et al. “Recent updates on glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 14.7 (2014): 585-602.
  14. Setién I., et al. “Root phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NAD-malic enzymes activity increase the ammonium-assimilating capacity in tomato”. Journal of Plant Physiology 171.5 (2014): 49-63.
  15. Cortés VA., et al. “Leptin ameliorates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in Agpat2-/- lipodystrophic mice independent of hepatocyte leptin receptors”. Journal of Lipid Research 55.2 (2014): 276-288.
  16. Lowry OH., et al. “Protein measurement with the Folin-Phenol reagent”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193 (1951): 265-275.
  17. Lenzen S. “The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin induced diabetes”. Diabetologia 51 (2008): 216-226.
  18. Farsam H., et al. “Composition of the essential oils of wild and cultivated Satureja Khuzestanica Jamzad from Iran”. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (2004): 308-310.
  19. Duvvuri LS., et al. “Delivery aspects of antioxidants in diabetes management”. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 13 (2015): 1-18.
  20. Rajaei Z., et al. “Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. Advanced Biomedical Research 4 (2015): 33.
  21. Gomathi D., et al. “Evaluation of antioxidants in the kidney of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats”. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 29.2 (2014): 221-226.
  22. Venkata-Rao P., et al. “The effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin supplementation on expression of the glycogen phosphorylase gene in rat liver”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270 (1995): 24955-24960.
  23. Malardé L., et al. “Endurance training and insulin therapy need to be associated to fully exert their respective beneficial effects on oxidant stress and glycemic regulation in diabetic rats”. Free Radical Research 48.4 (2014): 412-419.
  24. Bumke-Vogt C., et al. “The flavones apigenin and luteolin induce FOXO1 translocation but inhibit gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in human cells”. PLoS One 9.8 (2014): e104321.
  25. Chen BL., et al. “Quercetin attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury via an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase-regulated autophagy pathway”. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 25.11 (2014): 1226-1229.
  26. Priore P., et al. “Extra virgin olive oil phenols down-regulate lipid synthesis in primary-cultured rat-hepatocytes”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 25.7 (2014): 683-691.
Citation: Mobin Khoshbin., et al. “Essential Oil of Cultivated Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad Improves Activities and Genes Expression of Hepatoglycoregulatory Enzymes in Diabetic Rats”. EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports 3.2 (2020): 01-13.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.