Research Article
Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2015
Recycling of Aluminum Castings Waste
Mustafa A Rijab1, Ali I Al-Mosawi2*, Shaymaa A Abdulsada3, Raied K Ajmi4
1Technical Institute of Baqubah, Iraq
2Free Consultation, Babylon, Iraq
3College of Engineering, Department of Materials, Kufa University, Iraq
4Technical Institute of Babylon, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: Ali I Al-Mosawi, Free Consultation, Babylon, Iraq.
Received: June 23, 2015; Published: August 08, 2015
Citation: Ali I Al-Mosawi., et al. “Recycling of Aluminum Castings Waste”. EC Chemistry 1.2 (2015): 48-55.
Abstract
The results showed that it is possible to recycle aluminum alloy solid residues resulting from the industrial waste of the plants, to become an alloy with good mechanical properties. Because of these characteristics are characterized by properties, in terms of high hardness and brittleness, with weakness in machine ability. It was found that the microstructure of industrial waste was a needle -shaped particles within the mixture of the structure. Therefore, adding titanium element will lead to a partial modification of the microscopic structure while increasing this element be enough to get the modification process effectively. The results also show that the thermal homogenizing change the shape of the silicon needle or fibrous to spherical shape clearly through the process of homogenizing. And that the spherical shape of the silicon particles is obtained through five basic stages.
Keywords: Recycling waste; Aluminum alloy; Modification; Thermal Homogenizing
Introduction
In many places, like those in Iraq have broken done, when a shortage of fresh Al happens, the remolding of scrapped castings becomes unavoidable to obtain new castings. Nevertheless, non-homogenous microstructure and low mechanical properties are characteristic of these castings obtained by remolding, especially when the disputed materials are formed from modified alloys [1,2]. At that place are seven stages of Waste Recycling: sorting of waste; cut down on waste; screening; insulation and cleaning with compressed air; detachment of the waste using magnets; insulation depending on the weightiness; rinsing and drying. Now, the question is "Where do we get the aluminum alloy metal scraps"? The answer is appendages of metal castings of aluminum alloy. Fig.1 represents aluminum waste. Where represent the following pictures, appendages metal castings of aluminum alloy Olney used some sections coefficient companies and the Ministry of Industry and Minerals in the manufacture of some of the base of the iron castings and some parts of the ceiling fan [3,4].
Castings of Aluminum-Silicon characterized by their good casting properties and a smashing number of researches have been taken on their purification and/or adjustment to optimize its mechanical properties [4,5]. Aluminum casting alloys are gaining wide popularity, as they combine several attractive properties such as low density, high hardness, good casting characteristics, as well as improved properties if the alloy microstructure is refined or altered. The event of alteration has been assigned to both affecting nucleation and Si morphology through prohibiting its growth [6] while modification alters the shape of the Si phase. Close to other external factors like vibration or rapid solidification cause an adjustment in the sound structure of the Si eutectic [7,8]. The eutectic morphology ranges from plate-like to lamellae like in as cast condition to a circular like after modification or rapid cooling [3]. When Al-Si alloys are solidified the eutectic silicon is found out to consist of coarse plates in the precipitous edges.
Figure 1: Aluminum Waste.
These are damaging to the mechanical properties [4]. Nevertheless, shortly afterwards the event of modification was found. Al-Si casting alloys are particularly great importance as they offer good casting properties, good corrosion resistance, in increase to improved wear resistance [5]. All the same, the morphology of Si eutectic in these alloys is of large significance in controlling their properties, as it is commonly grown in lamellar or fibrous or spheroidized form [6]. Homogenization treatments, originally designed for Al-Si cast alloys, also causes an effect on the Si particle morphology, as it changes their shape from lamellar to spheroid [7-10]. The increase of elements like Na, Sr, Sb, and it was found to cause an impression on the microstructure of the eutectic alloy depending on their addition procedure and measure. Both modes of refinement of (Ti) and modification of Na, Sr, Sb have an effect on microstructure, but in a quite different way, as the first control the nucleation rate rather than the sound structure of the second phase [8,9].
Experimental Procedure
The experimental program of this work consisted of producing a number of castings [6] by remolding scrapped castings made of Al-12% Si alloy in a gas furnace. The melt was refined by adding Ti in the range 0.09-0.18% Ti. The melt composition was controlled by adding fresh Al. Titanium was added in an elemental form, weighted and wrapped with Al foil. The Ti-wrapped in foil was placed in the bed of an alumina crucible and the molten metal was poured over it. The whole run was applied afterwards for 15 minute in the gas furnace for melt homogenization. The molten metal was poured at 610°C in a preheated steel mold. The cast pieces were homogenized at 400°C for different durations 1, 30, 60, 90, 100, hrs. Figure 2 represent the microstructure of Aluminum-Silicon alloys, and Table 1 shows the chemical composition of Aluminum-Silicon castings waste.
Figure 2: Aluminum Waste.
Elements Content % Aluminum-Silicon Alloys
Al-12% Si Al-12% Si-0.09% Ti Al-12% Si-0.18% Ti
Si 12.00 12.00 12.00
Fe 0.246 0.28 0.31
Cu 0.019 0.023 0.025
Mn 0.173 0.189 0.184
Mg 0.005 0.006 0.007
Zn 0.025 0.029 0.028
Ti 0.035 0.09 0.07
Cr 0.012 0.012 0.015
Ni 0.005 0.007 0.006
Pb 0.002 0.003 0.003
Sn 0.002 0.003 0.003
AL Rem. Rem. Rem.
Table 1: Chemical Composition of Aluminum-Silicon Castings Waste.
Result and Discussion
Figure 3 represents the microstructure of Aluminum-Silicon Cast and Modified Alloys without heating. The depicted changes in microstructure reveals that the Si-eutectic changes its morphology by heating at 400°C through five stages; nucleation, fragmentation, spherodization, growth, and finally stabilization. The first stage after 15 hrs is a stage where growth of the Si starts by diffusion of Si from the matrix to the particles. After 30 hrs, Silicon starts to diffuse out of the Si-eutectic particles and fragmentation of these particles happens changing their morphology. After that the Si particles becomes spheroidized for both alloys without Ti and with 0.18% Ti, where, only partial spheroidization happens in the alloy containing 0.09% Ti.
The spheroidized particles start to grow, growth of the Si particles proceeds with holding time till these grown particles reach a static state of their size and changes only happen to their physical body. The microstructure as of the Al-12% Si cast alloys without Ti and with 0.09% Ti & 0.18% Ti, respectively, is seen to consist of two phases mainly, which are primary (- Al and eutectic Si. Adding the 0.09% Ti is seeing to modify the Si-eutectic morphology slightly, but has no effect on refining the main (. Spell, 0.18% Ti modifies the Si-eutectic morphology greatly and changes the primary (to hold a fine dendritic structure. This event is thought to be preferable to the role of Ti in reducing the melting peak of the alloy, hence yielding a higher chance for nucleation of the primary (Al relative to the Si-eutectic, this is in turn refines the primary phase) and inhibits the Si growth. The microstructure of the studied alloys after homogenization at 400°C for 15, 30, 60, 90 and 100 hrs shown in Figures 4,5,6,7 and 8 respectively.
It is a worth mentioning that recent references [9,10] have pointed out that the addition of Titanium in various forms to aluminum Alloys have a substantial effect on nucleating the primary aluminum phase. These surveys have shown that Ti in solution in the liquid metal even below the 0.09%, determined by equilibrium data from the phase diagram, and as low as 0.09% would be expected to precipitate (TiAl3), which is an active nucleus for aluminum. The different surging times of heat treatment aim of observing the changes that occur with the microstructure refinancing. It is worth noting that the time necessary for stabilization changes from alloy to alloy, as stabilization happens after 100 hours for the alloy without Ti & with 0.18% Ti, while it happens after 100 hours for the alloy containing 0.09% Ti. This stable size of the Si-particles ranges from 5-10 µm. The measured hardness of all the studied alloys in as cast and homogenized conditions. 
The data shows that adding Ti to Al-Si eutectic cast alloys increase their hardness in as cast condition. This result might be excused by an increment in the eutectic content or the constitution of (TiSi) particles [10], which is not investigated in this work. Homogenization, of these alloys causes a substantial drop in hardness of all alloys and this fall continues with homogenization theme. The potential reasons behind this drop in hardness are stress-relief and change in Si-eutectic morphology. Nevertheless, these surveys have recorded that (TiAl3) was present in (TiB2) crystals at lower levels of Ti than that looked from the phase diagram (0.18% Ti) [9]. Some of these studies reported a poisoning effect of Si on the grain refinement action of Ti when Si% is high due to the possibility of formation of TiSi [10].
Figure 3: Microstructure of Aluminum-Silicon Cast and Modified Alloys.
Figure 4: Microstructure of Homogenized Alloys with (15) hrs, at 400°C.
Figure 5: Microstructure of Homogenized Alloys with (30) hrs at 400°C.
Figure 6: Microstructure of Homogenized Alloys with (60) hrs at 400°C.
Figure 7: Microstructure of Homogenized Alloys with (90) hrs at 400°C.
Figure 8: Microstructure of Homogenized Alloys with (100) hrs at 400°C.
Conclusion
  1. Adding Ti with amount (0.09%) to Al-12% Si alloy will have a partial modification for Si eutectic, and a maximum modification will be realized as the addition of Ti reaches to 0.18%.
  2. Homogenization treatment will causes a modification effects in the Si eutectic located in Al-12% Si cast alloys with existence or non-existence Ti, and this process is done in six stages.
  3. The modification behavior of Si eutectic during homogenization Similar to alloys that do not contain Ti. This situation obtains at 0.18% Ti.
  4. Addition Ti to Al-12% Si cast alloys leads to increased its hardness.
  5. In the case of alloys that contain 0.09% Ti is reached the stabilization state after 100 hours, while in alloys containing 0.18% Ti they accessible after 60-hour.
Bibliography
  1. RA Higgins. “Engineering Metallurgy, part 5, applied physical Metallurgy”. Holder and Stoughton, London (2010).
  2. Ali I Al-Mosawi., et al. “Waste Processing: Technical Solutions”. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (2015).
  3. Ali I Al-Mosawi., et al. “Recycling of Waste Materials: A Review”. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (2015).
  4. Y Shimizu., et al. “Influence of Phosphate and Sodium Halides on the Structure of Hyper Eutectic AL-Si Casting Alloys”. Aluminum 62 (1986): 276.
  5. AA Das. “Some Observations on the Effect of the Pressure on the Solidification of AL-Si Eutectic Alloys”. Part 2, British Foundry man 34 (2011): 201.
  6. Shaymaa Abbas Abdulsada. “Preparation of Aluminum Alloy From Recycling Cans Wastes”. InternationalJournal of Current Engineering and Technology 3.4 (2013): 1348-1350.
  7. A Sharma. “Heat Treatment: Principles and Techniques”. Part 3 Prentice Hall of India, Private Ltd (2008).
  8. RN Grugel. “Evaluation of Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified AL-Si alloys”. Material Characteristics 18 (1999): 313.
  9. A Somi Reddy B., et al. “Mechanism of Seizure of Aluminum Silicon Alloys Sliding Against Steel”. Wear 181 (): 658.
  10. SF Mustafa. “Wear and Wear Mechanisms of AL - 20%  Si/AL2O3 Composite”. Part 2 wear 155 (1995): 77.
Copyright: © 2015 Ali I Al-Mosawi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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