Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 2 - 2020
Height Determines Upper Extremity Long Bone Length, Not Sex
Mark Orland*, Michael Patetta, Nitin Sukumar and Mark Gonzalez
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
*Corresponding Author:Mark Orland, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL,USA.
Received: December 23, 2019; Published: January 11, 2020


Background: Long bone length is considered a mechanism of differentiation between female and male skeletal remains. The aim of this study was to examine whether reported sex long bone differences were the result of an average height difference between the sexes or whether there was a length difference independent of height between sexes. 

Methods: The distal and proximal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna of thirteen cadavers were identified and the length of each of the long bones were measured. A nonparametric signed-rank test was performed to test differences between right and left extremities. Subsequently, a mixed error-component model was used on both arms of all of the cadavers (n = 26) to examine how left or right sidedness, sex, and height related to upper extremity long bone length. 

Results: When comparing the left and right side of the cadavers, there was no significant difference in the length of the humerus, radius or ulna (p > .05). Additionally, comparing between females and males, there was no significant difference in the upper extremity long bones. However, there was a significant increase in the length of the radius and the ulna with an increase in the height of the cadaver (p < .01). 

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in upper extremity long bone length when comparing between males and females. Therefore, the sex of incomplete anatomical remains cannot be determined solely based on forearm bone length; the height of the individual to which the remains belong can be estimated.

Keywords: Forensics Anthropology; Skeletal Identification; Long Bone Variation; Sex Upper Extremity Variation; Medicine; Anatomic Variation; Biomechanics


  1. Mall G., et al. “Sex determination and estimation of stature from the long bones of the arm”. Forensic Science International 117.1-2 (2001): 23-30. 
  2. Clark EM., et al. “Sex differences in the ratio between humerus width and length are established prior to puberty”. Osteoporosis International 18.4 (2007): 463-470. 
  3. Nieves JW., et al. “Males Have Larger Skeletal Size and Bone Mass Than Females, Despite Comparable Body Size”. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20.3 (2004): 529-535. 
  4. McCormack RR., et al. “Prevalence of tendinitis and related disorders of the upper extremity in a manufacturing workforce”. The Journal of Rheumatology 17.7 (1990): 958-964.
  5. Gold JE., et al. “Specific and non-specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder syndromes in automobile manufacturing workers”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52.2 (2009): 124-132. 
  6. Huisstede BMA., et al. “Incidence and prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A systematic appraisal of the literature”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2006): 7. 
  7. Ma CC., et al. “Work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in the United States: 2006, 2009, and 2014 National Health Interview Survey”. Work 60.4 (2018): 623-634. 
  8. Stockstill JW., et al. “Prevalence of upper extremity neuropathy in a clinical dentist population”. Journal of the American Dental Association 124.8 (1993): 67-72. 
  9. Biomechanics - Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace - NCBI Bookshelf (2019).
  10. Rau G., et al. “Movement biomechanics goes upwards: From the leg to the arm. In: Journal of Biomechanics”. Elsevier Science Ltd 33 (2000): 1207-1216. 
  11. Drake R., et al. “Gray’s Anatomy for Students”. 3rd Edition (2005). 
  12. Mixed models for repeated measures-part (2019).
  13. Westgate PM and Burchett WW. “A Comparison of Correlation Structure Selection Penalties for Generalized Estimating Equations”. American Statistical Association 71.4 (2017): 344-353. 
  14. SAS 9.4 Software | SAS (2019). 
  15. FastStats - Body Measurements (2019).
  16. Gilsanz V., et al. “Differential Effect of Sex on the Sizes of the Bones in the Axial and Appendicular Skeletons 1”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82.5 (1997): 1603-1607. 
  17. Hiramoto Y. “Right-left differences in the lengths of human arm and leg bones”. Kaibogaku Zasshi 68.5 (1993): 536-543.
  18. Papaloucas M., et al. “The asymmetry in length between right and left humerus in humans”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11.21 (2008): 2509-2512. 
  19. Handsfield GG., et al. “Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI”. Journal of Biomechanics 2014 47.3 (2014): 631-638. 
  20. Vaquero-Picado A., et al. “Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow”. EFORT Open Reviews 1.11 (2016): 391-397. 
  21. Buchanan TS., et al. “Neuromusculoskeletal modeling: Estimation of muscle forces and joint moments and movements from measurements of neural command”. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 20.4 (2004): 367-395. 
  22. Hwang B and Jeon D. “A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by Torque sensors”. Sensors (Switzerland). 15.4 (2015): 8337-8357. 
  23. Roetert EP., et al. “The biomechanics of tennis elbow: An integrated approach”. Clinics in Sports Medicine 14.1 (1995): 47-57.
  24. Nesbit SM., et al. The Effects of Racket Inertia Tensor On Elbow Loadings And Racket Behavior For Central And Eccentric Impacts 5 (2006).
  25. Lee AT and Lee-Robinson AL. “The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients with C6 and C7 Radiculopathy”. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 2.4 (2010): 334-336. 
  26. Yoshii Y., et al. “Measurement of wrist flexion and extension torques in different forearm positions”. BioMedical Engineering On Line 14.1 (2015).
  27. Canham CD., et al. “Distal radioulnar joint reaction force following ulnar shortening: Diaphyseal osteotomy versus wafer resection”. The Journal of Hand Surgery: American 40.11 (2015): 2206-2212. 
Citation: Mark Orland., et al.“ Height Determines Upper Extremity Long Bone Length, Not Sex”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.2 (2020): 01-07.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 21, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.