Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 2 - 2020
Height Determines Upper Extremity Long Bone Length, Not Sex
Mark Orland*, Michael Patetta, Nitin Sukumar and Mark Gonzalez
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
*Corresponding Author:Mark Orland, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL,USA.
Received: December 23, 2019; Published: January 11, 2020




Abstract

Background: Long bone length is considered a mechanism of differentiation between female and male skeletal remains. The aim of this study was to examine whether reported sex long bone differences were the result of an average height difference between the sexes or whether there was a length difference independent of height between sexes. 

Methods: The distal and proximal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna of thirteen cadavers were identified and the length of each of the long bones were measured. A nonparametric signed-rank test was performed to test differences between right and left extremities. Subsequently, a mixed error-component model was used on both arms of all of the cadavers (n = 26) to examine how left or right sidedness, sex, and height related to upper extremity long bone length. 

Results: When comparing the left and right side of the cadavers, there was no significant difference in the length of the humerus, radius or ulna (p > .05). Additionally, comparing between females and males, there was no significant difference in the upper extremity long bones. However, there was a significant increase in the length of the radius and the ulna with an increase in the height of the cadaver (p < .01). 

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in upper extremity long bone length when comparing between males and females. Therefore, the sex of incomplete anatomical remains cannot be determined solely based on forearm bone length; the height of the individual to which the remains belong can be estimated.

Keywords: Forensics Anthropology; Skeletal Identification; Long Bone Variation; Sex Upper Extremity Variation; Medicine; Anatomic Variation; Biomechanics

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Citation: Mark Orland., et al.“ Height Determines Upper Extremity Long Bone Length, Not Sex”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.2 (2020): 01-07.

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