Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 3 - 2021
The Sojourn Drain Effects on Tissue Healing in Postoperative Patients
Rahul Anil Sethi1*, GF Avetisyan2, Sanobar Shariff3 and Burhan Kantawala3
1Consultant Physician on Panel, Embassy of India in Armenia, Head of Department, International Students’ Affairs, Assistant Teaching, Operative Surgery and Topographical Anatomy Department, Visiting Faculty, Faculty of Public Health, Yerevan Sate Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia
2Dean, International Students, Associate Professor, Operative Surgery and Topographical Anatomy Department, Yerevan Sate Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia
34th General Medicine Faculty Student, Yerevan Sate Medical University, Yerevan, Arme
*Corresponding Author: Rahul Anil Sethi, Consultant Physician on Panel, Embassy of India in Armenia, Head of Department, International Students’ Affairs, Assistant Teaching, Operative Surgery and Topographical Anatomy Department, Visiting Faculty, Faculty of Public Health, Yerevan Sate Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia.
Received: February 24, 2021; Published: February 26, 2021


Introduction: Implants allowing removal of fluid and/or gas from a wound or body cavity are called Surgical Drains. These surgical drains are commonly used generally in thoracic or abdominal surgery to minimize the post-operative complications like infection and hematoma. These are of various types but in our research here we have focused on passive drains made of latex, polypropylene or silastic rubber. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of post-operative complications and its effect on tissue healing while draining in situ.

Background: The use of surgical drains is common in all types of surgeries and seldom we take efforts to know the origin and their positive or negative effects of these critical devices. The first ever recorded historical evidence for surgical drains were found in the era of Hippocrates (circa 460-377 BC). The Greek Physician Hippocrates used hollow tubes for the treatment of empyema. Negative suction drains are considered the standard of practice in head and neck surgery. Claudius Galen in 200 B.C., whose teachings were held infallible for the next 1500 years, described tubes for the management of ascites. The routine use of drains for surgical procedures is diminishing as better radiological investigation and confidence in surgical technique have reduced their necessity. It is felt now that drains may hinder recovery by acting as an 'anchor' limiting mobility post-surgery and the drain itself may allow infection into the wound. But in certain situations their use is unavoidable. Hence, this study was important to understand their positive and negative effects in real practice.

Patients and Methods: The medical records of 33 adult patients {aged > 18 and < 89} of the surgical department at various hospitals across Yerevan, who had been operated on an acute abdominal process, Armenia were reviewed. We identified 100% of patients taken as a part of this study who had a post-operative drain. Patient demographics, comorbidities, pre- and post-operative complication rates were collected for each patient. The primary outcome focused in this study was the rate of post-operative complications involved with drains especially the tissue healing was mainly focused.

A complication associated with the postoperative period was defined as any event required medical or surgical intervention within 30 days of undergoing initial surgery and that was denoted as the end point of this study. Operating time was denoted from the time or the first incision until the last suture was put. The number of days the drain stayed in the body was denoted by the time the drain was inserted at the end or during the surgical procedure until the time it was completely removed at the post-operative period.

Results: 2 out of 33 patients developed a complication associated with the drainage tube. The rest of the 31 patients as a part of the study did not develop any issues with the tissue healing in the post-operative period and were all healthy recoveries. Statistically speaking, this leaves us with a percentage of 6.06% complication rate associated with these drains used.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the use of postoperative drains in patients who underwent acute abdominal surgery with either the open approach or laparoscopic approach does lead to a no serious postoperative complication with complication-free rate of 93.94%. Its further aids in the tissue healing by giving an idea the type of process going on in the body post-surgically.

Keywords: Sojourn Drain Effects; Tissue Healing; Postoperative Patients


    1. Kim J., et al. “Gastric cancer surgery without drains: A prospective randomized trial”. The Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 6 (2004): 727-732.
    2. Durai R., et al. “Use of drains in surgery: a review”. The Journal of Perioperative Practice 6 (2009): 180-186.
    3. Branum G., et al. “Pancreatic necrosis: Results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains”. Annals of Surgery 6 (1998): 870-877.
    4. Komuta K., et al. “Herniation of the small bowel through the port site following removal of drains during laparoscopic surgery”. Digestive Surgery 17.5 (2000): 544-546.
    5. Kumar M., et al. “Is prophylactic placement of drains necessary after subtotal gastrectomy?” World Journal of Gastroenterology 27 (2007): 3738-3741.
    6. Chowdri NA., et al. “Role of subcutaneous drains in obese patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy: A cohort study”. International Journal of Surgery 6 (2007): 404-407.
    7. Mirzai H., et al. “Are drains useful for lumbar disc surgery? A prospective, randomized clinical study”. Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques 3 (2006): 171-177.
    8. Adogwa O., et al. “Post-operative drain use in patients undergoing decompression and fusion: incidence of complications and symptomatic hematoma”. Journal of Spine Surgery 2 (2018): 220-226.
    9. Li Z., et al. “Abdominal drainage to prevent intra-peritoneal abscess after open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5 (2018).
    10. Zhou J., et al. “Characteristics of abdominal cavity drainage fluid in Chinese patients without postoperative complications after surgery for gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal tumors”. Clinical Interventions in Aging 10 (2015): 367-370.
    11. Berliner SD., et al. “Intraperitoneal drains in surgery of the colon”. Clinical Evaluation of 454 cases”. The American Journal of Surgery 5 (1967): 646-647.
    12. Yates JL. “An experimental study of the local effects of peritoneal drainage”. The American Surgeon: SAGE Journals 10 (1955): 1048-1072.
    13. Berliner SD., et al. “Use and Abuse of Intraperitoneal Drains In Colon Surgery”. Archives of Surgery 4 (1964): 686-690.
    14. Molinari E., et al. “Amylase value in drains after pancreatic resection as predictive factor of postoperative pancreatic fistula: Results of a prospective study in 137 patients”. Annals of Surgery 2 (2007): 281-287.
    15. Walker J. “Patient preparation for safe removal of surgical drains”. Nursing Standard 49 (2007): 39-41.
    16. Todd GJ and Reemtsma K. “Cholecystectomy with drainage. Factors influencing wound infection in 1,000 elective cases”. The American Journal of Surgery 5 (1978): 622-623.
    17. Moss JP. “Historical and current perspectives on surgical drainage”. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 4 (1981): 517-527.
    18. Dougherty SH and Simmons RL. “The biology and practice of surgical drains part I”. Current Problems in Surgery 8 (1992): 567-623.
    19. Cohn I., et al. “Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum in non-penetrating abdominal trauma”. The American Journal of Surgery 3 (1952): 293-301.
    20. Magee C., et al. “Potentiation of wound infection by surgical drains”. The American Journal of Surgery 5 (1976): 547-549.
    21. Samraj K and Gurusamy KS. “Wound drains following thyroid surgery”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4 (2007): CD006099.
Citation: Rahul Anil Sethi., et al. “The Sojourn Drain Effects on Tissue Healing in Postoperative Patients”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 4.3 (2021): 27-33.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.