Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 11 - 2020
The Effect of Smoking, Hookah and Tobacco Consumption on Sperms Morphological Forms - Pilot Study
Ammar Mohammed Ali Mohammed1*, Gihad Eldeen Ibrahim Osman2, Nazik Ahmed Karar3 and Shimaa Osman Hassan2
1Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan
2Clinical Embryologist, Atrab and Enjab Fertility and IVF Center, Khartoum, Sudan
3IVF Lab Director, Atrab and Enjab Fertility and IVF Center, Khartoum, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Ammar Mohammed Ali Mohammed, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan.
Received: September 26, 2020; Published: October 30, 2020


Background: Lifestyle factors like smoking or tobacco have negative impacts on male reproduction. Tobacco chewing and smoking habits in linked to significant decrease in semen quality, particularly sperm morphology. Semen morphology is an important parameter related to pregnancy. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of smoking, hookah and tobacco consumption on sperm quality and the related parameters such as sperm concentration and motility with focusing in detailed sperm morphology.

Patients and Methods: In this pilot study, we examined 20 male patients including control (patients with normal sperms' morphology and no history of nicotine consumption), smokers, Hookah and tobacco consumers. Semen analysis was done according to WHO 2010. For sperm morphology, smears made from semen samples and processed by using H&E technique. Normal and the abnormal sperms observed under 100× oil immersion microscope. Each of the spermatozoa was examined for head, mid piece and tail defects. A total of 200 spermatozoa were observed for defects and expressed in percentage for each sample.

Results: Patients' classified according to nicotine consumption into control 3, smokers 5, tobacco 5, hookah 2 and multiple 5. Nicotine consumption (smoking, Hookah and tobacco) strongly associated with semen analysis final report (P = 0.006). Sample volume mean 2.97 ± 1.11 ml. Sperm concentration 75 ± 51.5 Millions/ml. Sperm motility 47.05 ± 34.56 Millions/ml. Sperm morphology 2.85 ± 0.99%, Head malformation 72.2 ± 13.8%, Mid piece malformation 16.2 ± 9.5%, Tail malformation 7.4 ± 6.8% and Multiple defects 0.5 ± 1.1%. However, one case of triple tail sperm has been reported. Significant differences in means have been found regarding sperm concentration (P = 0.023), motility (P = 0.002), and morphology (P = 0.045).

Conclusion: Nicotine consumption significantly decrease semen quality by lowering concentration, motility and morphology. Different forms of sperm abnormalities have been reported including one case of triple tail sperm.

Keywords: Nicotine; Sperm Morphology; Male Fertility


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Citation: Ammar Mohammed Ali Mohammed., et al. “The Effect of Smoking, Hookah and Tobacco Consumption on Sperms Morphological Forms - Pilot Study”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.11 (2020): 11-17.

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