Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 11 - 2020
Evaluation of Serum Tumor Markers Variation, Following the Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Sorush Niknamian*
Military Medicine Department, Liberty University, VA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Sorush Niknamian, Military Medicine Department, Liberty University, VA, USA.
Received: October 20, 2020; Published: October 31, 2020




Abstract

Introduction: Radioactive iodine is the effective therapy in thyroid cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum tumor markers in patients under the therapy with radioactive iodine 131.

Materials and Methods: 45 cases of female patients aged 16 - 60 years with thyroid cancer surgery referred to the nuclear medicine department of Nemazi hospital for (iodine treatment after surgery) were selected. The selection was on the basis of interviewing and information of patients is consent forms. Only patients with thyroid cancer and referred for the first time without any other diseases were chosen for this study. The selected patients were prescribed a dose of 150 mCi of I-131. From each patient, 4 mL of chelated serum for serological studies on tumor markers and 2 mL of oxalated serum for spectrophotometry studies on cell death were used in three stages. The first stage before the iodine therapy, the second stage, after 48 hours, and the third stage, 30 days after radioiodine therapy were studied and the results were evaluated by the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test.

Results: According to the results of dependent paired T-Test, AFP, in the periods before, 48 hours and 1 month after radioiodine therapy, respectively were 3.46 ± 1.21 and 3.74 ± 1.37 and 3.76 ± 1.25 (p < 0.0005). About CA 19-9 in the periods before, 48 hours and one month after radioiodine therapy, the results were 9.30 ± 6.32, 9.95 ± 6.92 (p = 0.040) and 11.26 ± 7.49 (p < 0.0005) respectively. About CEA, the results were 1.60 ± 0.60, 1.47 ± 0.55 and 2.23 ± 0.69 (p < 0.0005), respectively. In the case of tumor marker CA 15-3 results were 15.53 ± 6.48 and 1.60 ± 0.60 and 15.68 ± 6.52 (p = 0.014), respectively and in the case of ALP, results were 124.22 ± 5 and 122.2 ± 6 and 116.7 ± 7 (p < 0.0005), respectively.

Conclusion: According to the same studies and the acquired results, it can be concluded that the tumor markers CEA and CA19-9 are more acceptable and sustainable for monitoring the malignancy and progressive disease in patients with thyroid cancer. The decreasing ALP is normal and transient. The increase of AFP and CA15-3 is not even statistically reliable. It is recommended that the period of iodine therapy and falsely elevated tumor markers can be informed to the doctor, during the gastrointestinal studies in patients with thyroid cancer, in order to prevent wrong decisions on the treatment process.

Keywords: Tumor Marker; Thyroid Cancer; Iodine Therapy; Iodine-131

References

  1. Li LB., et al. “Medical Radiation Usage and Exposures from Medical X Ray Diagnosis in Shandong Province of China”. Radiation Protection Dosimetry3 (2001): 261-266.
  2. Creach KM., et al. “Radioactive Iodine Therapy Decreases Recurrence in Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma”. ISRN Endocrinology (2012): 816386.
  3. Siegel R., et al. “Cancer statistics, 2012”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians1 (2012): 10-29.
  4. La Perle KM., et al. “Modulation of sodium/iodide symporter expression in the salivary gland”. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association8 (2013): 1029-1036.
  5. Petrich T., et al. “Outcome after radioiodine therapy in 107 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and initial bone metastases: side-effects and influence of age”. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine2 (2001): 203-208.
  6. Schrohl AS., et al. “Tumor markers: from laboratory to clinical utility”. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics: MCP6 (2003): 378-387.
  7. Diamandis EP and Van der Merwe DE. “Plasma protein profiling by mass spectrometry for cancer diagnosis: opportunities and limitations”. Clinical Cancer Research: an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research3 (2005): 963-965.
  8. Wagner PL., et al. “Significance of Serum Tumor Marker Levels in Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Appendiceal Origin”. Annals of Surgical Oncology2 (2013): 10.
  9. Duffy MJ. “Tumor markers in clinical practice: a review focusing on common solid cancers”. Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre1 (2013): 4-11.
  10. Duffy MJ. “Role of tumor markers in patients with solid cancers: A critical review”. European Journal of Internal Medicine3 (2007): 175-184.
  11. Carmignani CP., et al. “Utility of CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers in diagnosis and prognostic assessment of mucinous epithelial cancers of the appendix”. Journal of Surgical Oncology4 (2004): 162-166.
  12. Mortazavi SMJ., et al. “Radiation Hormesis and Adaptive Responses Induced by Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation”. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences1 (1999): 50-60.
  13. Tavakoli MR., et al. “Evaluation of Blood Cell Count In The Radiology Staff of Birjand Hospitals In 2011”. Modern Care Journal2 (2012): 80-86.
  14. Watanabe N., et al. “Radiotoxicity after iodine-131 therapy for thyroid cancer using the micronucleus assay”. Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine3 (1998): 436-440.
  15. Czako L., et al. “[Comparative study of the role of CA 19-9, CA 72-4 and CEA tumor antigens in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and other gastrointestinal malignant diseases]”. Orvosi Hetilap47 (1997): 2981-2985.
  16. Vrbikova J., et al. “An increase in serum CA 19-9 leading to the discovery of thyroid cancer in patient with the history of rectosigmoid cancer”. Endocrine Abstracts 22 (2010): 762.
  17. Bredaki FE., et al. “Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein in normal pregnancy at 11-13 weeks' gestation”. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy4 (2011): 274-279.
  18. Duffy MJ. “Evidence for the clinical use of tumour markers”. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry5 (2004): 370-377.
  19. Crocoli A., et al. “Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in Wilms tumor may follow the same pattern of other fetal neoplasms after treatment: evidence from three cases”. Pediatric Surgery International4 (2008): 499-502.
  20. Barbet J., et al. “Prognostic impact of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling-times in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism11 (2005): 6077-6084.
  21. Osamura RY., et al. “Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of regulated pathway for calcitonin and constitutive pathway for carcinoembryonic antigen in the same cells of human medullary carcinomas of thyroid glands”. Modern Pathology 1 (1997): 7-11.
  22. Busnardo B., et al. “Nonparallel patterns of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels in the follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma”. Cancer2 (1984): 278-285.
  23. Ilantzis C., et al. “Deregulated expression of the human tumor marker CEA and CEA family member CEACAM6 disrupts tissue architecture and blocks colonocyte differentiation”. Neoplasia2 (2002): 151-163.
  24. Hammarstrom S. “The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family: structures, suggested functions and expression in normal and malignant tissues”. Seminars in Cancer Biology2 (1999): 67-81.
  25. Hashimoto T., et al. “Tumor markers and oncogene expression in thyroid cancer using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies”. Endocrinologia Japonica2 (1990): 247-254.
Citation: Sorush Niknamian. “Evaluation of Serum Tumor Markers Variation, Following the Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.11 (2020): 48-58

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.