Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 11 - 2020
Meta-Analysis and Rationale Regarding the Effect of Protease Inhibitors on Survival in the HIV-1-Infected Population
Jerome Adadzi1, Winifred Adadzi2, Nicholas A Kerna3*, John V Flores4,5 and Uzoamaka Nwokorie6
1Sam’s Club Pharmacy, USA
2AdventHealth Fish Memorial, USA
3SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
4Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
5Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
6University of Washington, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand.
Received: August 24, 2020; Published: October 29, 2020


Chiari malformation results in the downward displacement of the brain stem and cerebellum into the cervical portion of the spinal cord. There are four fundamental types of Chiari malformations (CM-I, CM-II, CM-III, and CM-IV) with variants (Chiari type 1.5 and 3.5), depending on the severity of the anatomical distortions and CSF blockage. Symptoms of Chiari malformations can range from asymptomatic (in uncomplicated CM-I) to life-threatening (in the more severe malformations). Diagnosis is typically suspected by signs and symptoms and confirmed by diagnostic imaging. Treatment can range from medications for pain relief (in CM-I) to surgery (in the more severe symptoms and malformations). CM-III and CM-IV have poor prognoses. An asymptomatic patient with CM-I can develop symptoms gradually over time or abruptly, secondary to trauma. Chiari malformation is one of the most common abnormalities affecting the craniovertebral junction and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of specific symptoms and circumstances.

Keywords: Chiari; Hydrocephalus; McRae Line; Meningomyelocele; Paresthesia; Syringomyelia; Valsalva Maneuver


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