Review Article
Volume 3 Issue 6 - 2020
Radiographic Anatomy in Parkinson Disease - A Mini Review in the Service of Early Diagnosis
Yasmin Mokhtari Garkani1 and Evangelos Mavrommatis2*
1Department of Biomedical Science- Radiology and Radiotherapy, School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Western Attica, Athens, Greece
2Department of Anatomy, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Evangelos Mavrommatis, Department of Anatomy, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Received: February 29, 2019; Published: May 28, 2020




Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the autonomic, limbic and somatomotor system. The most common damages in PD are neocortical, mesolimbic and tuberoinfundibular. Non-motor features include depression, urinary incontinence, hypotension, anosmia, erectile dysfunction, constipation, sleep disorders, and fatigue. However, this cluster of symptoms is rarely used to diagnose PD at an early stage, as differential diagnosis seems rather difficult. The etiology of PD remains unclear and most cases are sporadic. Nevertheless, genetic mutations of at least 20 proteins such as TDP-43, amyloid-β alpha-synuclein at S129, have been demonstrated to cause inherited forms of the disease. The process of neurodegeneration in PD begins long before the onset of clinical symptoms and lacks of specific clinical phenotype, resulting in untimely diagnosis and treatment. Imaging studies such as DAT-SPECT, PET-CT and MRI establish their true value in diagnosing prodromal neurodegeneration. Method: This bibliographic review aims to summarize research findings regarding the value of various imaging methods, in the diagnostic work-up of PD. Manuscripts included in the databases PubMed/Medline and Scopus were included in the review.

Results: PET and SPECT ligands can demonstrate the presence of terminal dopamine dysfunction in early and preclinical disease. Moreover, MRI imaging has enhanced diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PD imaging detects a possible alternative diagnoses, while its landmark includes the identification of early, new-onset, and even prodromal PD and may alter the therapeutic approach.

Conclusion: Imaging modalities present an essential role in PD early detection and diagnosis.

Keywords: DAT-SPECT; PET-CT; MRI; Parkinsonism; Neuroimaging

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Citation: Yasmin Mokhtari Garkani and Evangelos Mavrommatis. “Radiographic Anatomy in Parkinson Disease - A Mini Review in the Service of Early Diagnosis". EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.6 (2020): 06-11.

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