Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 6 - 2020
Antifertility Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Adult Female Wistar Rats
Anyanwu GE1*, Salihu EY1, Nweze SO3 and Atuadu V O2
1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu State, Nigeria
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Parklane Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:Anyanwu GE, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), Enugu State, Nigeria.
Received: December 18, 2019; Published: May 29, 2020




Abstract

Background: Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is used in folklore medicine for birth control or in the prevention of pregnancy and for premature expulsion of fetus from the womb. This study was carried out to ascertain its possible use as female contraceptive as claimed in folklore medicine. 

Method: Adult female wistar rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups A-C (n = 7). The animals were mated on the afternoon of proestrus phase and presence of spermatozoa (in the vaginal smear) the next morning indicated conception and day one of pregnancy. The control group A received distilled water (1 mL/kg p.o). The animals in group B and C received (100 and 200) mg/kg of extract p.o respectively from gestational day (GD) 1 to 18. Two rats from each group were randomly selected on day 10 and sacrificed. The uteri were separated and opened. The horned out sites were counted and the number of implantation sites per rat were recorded. The remaining rats were also sacrificed on day 19 of pregnancy, fetuses were removed from the pregnant rats by ventral laparotomy and fetal weight, number and the resorption sites were determined. 

Results: The result shows that the number of the implantation sites in control group is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the VA treated groups. No significant difference was observed in the foetal number and foetal weights of rats in control group as compared to those in the VA treated groups. The mean progesterone level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in rats treated with VA as compared to the pregnant rats treated with distilled water. The histological result showed that the rats in Group B and C had severe extensive degeneration of the endometrium and loss of tissues, focal area clumping of myometrium and mild distortion of the endometrium respectively, after administration of the extract. 

Conclusion: Results from this study support the traditional folk use of Vernonia amygdalina leaf as antifertility agent.

Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina; Antifertility; Progesterone; Implantation Sites and Endometrium

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Citation: Anyanwu GE., et al.“ Antifertility Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Adult Female Wistar Rats”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.6 (2020): 01-09.

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