Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 6 - 2020
Antifertility Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Adult Female Wistar Rats
Anyanwu GE1*, Salihu EY1, Nweze SO3 and Atuadu V O2
1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu State, Nigeria
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Parklane Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:Anyanwu GE, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), Enugu State, Nigeria.
Received: December 18, 2019; Published: May 29, 2020


Background: Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is used in folklore medicine for birth control or in the prevention of pregnancy and for premature expulsion of fetus from the womb. This study was carried out to ascertain its possible use as female contraceptive as claimed in folklore medicine. 

Method: Adult female wistar rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups A-C (n = 7). The animals were mated on the afternoon of proestrus phase and presence of spermatozoa (in the vaginal smear) the next morning indicated conception and day one of pregnancy. The control group A received distilled water (1 mL/kg p.o). The animals in group B and C received (100 and 200) mg/kg of extract p.o respectively from gestational day (GD) 1 to 18. Two rats from each group were randomly selected on day 10 and sacrificed. The uteri were separated and opened. The horned out sites were counted and the number of implantation sites per rat were recorded. The remaining rats were also sacrificed on day 19 of pregnancy, fetuses were removed from the pregnant rats by ventral laparotomy and fetal weight, number and the resorption sites were determined. 

Results: The result shows that the number of the implantation sites in control group is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the VA treated groups. No significant difference was observed in the foetal number and foetal weights of rats in control group as compared to those in the VA treated groups. The mean progesterone level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in rats treated with VA as compared to the pregnant rats treated with distilled water. The histological result showed that the rats in Group B and C had severe extensive degeneration of the endometrium and loss of tissues, focal area clumping of myometrium and mild distortion of the endometrium respectively, after administration of the extract. 

Conclusion: Results from this study support the traditional folk use of Vernonia amygdalina leaf as antifertility agent.

Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina; Antifertility; Progesterone; Implantation Sites and Endometrium


  1. Katz P., et al. “The economic impact of the assisted reproductive technologies”. Nature Medicine 8.1 (2002): 29-32.
  2. Assaf S., et al. “Quality of Care in Family Planning Services at Health Facilities in Senegal”. DHS Analytical Studies. 55. Rockville: ICF International (2015). 
  3. Nwachukwu I and Obasi OO. “Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria”. African Journal of Reproductive Health 12.1 (2008): 101-108.
  4. Iwu MM. “Traditional Igbo Medicine”. Institute of African studies, University of Nigeria; Nsukka, Nigeria (1982): 104-110. 
  5. Tita RK., et al. “Some Properties of Medicinal Plants used by the Igbos of Nigeria”. In: Traits, Tracts and Traces. Wolfgang Kreis (Ed.). Bioline International, Germany (2001): 209-210.
  6. Singha SC. “Medicinal Plants of Nigeria”. Nigerian National Press; Lagos, Nigeria (1965). 
  7. Samuel Adetunji Onasanwo., et al. “Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract via reductions of leucocyte migration and lipid peroxidation”. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6.2 (2017): 192-198.
  8. Epsey LL. “Current status of the hypothesis that mammalian ovulation is comparable to an inflammatory reaction”. Biology of Reproduction 50 (1994): 233-238.
  9. Trease GE and Evans WC. “Pharmacognsy”. 11th edition. Brailliar Tiridel Can. Macmillian publishers (1989): 178-88. 
  10. National Institute of Health (N.I.H). “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals”. DHEW Publication. Office of Science and Health Reports; Bethesda; U.S.A. (1985). 
  11. Marcondes FK., et al. “Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: some helpful considerations”. Brazilian. Journal of Biology. 62. (2002): 4.
  12. Isa AI., et al. “The modulatory role of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina extract on pregnant rats”. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 9.3. (2014): 45-47.
  13. Yakubu MT., et al. “Effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agestis (Schweinf. Ex.Hiern) stem on some testicular function indices of male rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115.2. (2007): 288-292.
  14. Anaga AO., et al. “Investigation of the methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer Ker. for pharmacological activities In vitro and In vivo”. Phytomedicine 11. (2004): 242-248. 
  15. Bolarinwa AF and Olaleye SB. “Blastocyst implantation: effect of thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement in the rat”. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 26.34 (1997): 135-137.
  16. Kamath JV and Rana AC. “Preliminary study on antifertility activity of Calotropis procera roots in female rats”. Fitoterapia 73. (2002): 111-115.
  17. De Freitas TG., et al. “Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice”. Contraception 71 (2005): 74-77.
  18. Audu Inusa., et al. “Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bitter Leaf Vernonia amygdalina Collected from Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria On Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms”. Science World Journal 13.3 (2018): 15-18. 
  19. Tijjani MA., et al. “Phytochemical analysis, analgesic and antipyretic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia”. Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology 6. (2017): 95-99.
  20. Momoh Johnson., et al. “Phytochemical analysis, in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 4 .5 (2015): 411-426. 
  21. Al-Dissi Nisreen M., et al. “Al-Hajj. Effects of Inula viscosa leaf extracts on abortion and implantation in rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77 (2001): 117-121.
  22. Kamatenesi-Mugisha M. “Medicinal Plants used in Reproductive Health Care in Western Uganda: Documentation, Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation”. PhD Thesis in Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (2007).
  23. Black, Michael H and Halmer Peter. “The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. Wallingford, UK: CABI: (2006): 226
  24. Maha Al-Asmakh. “Reproductive functions of progesterone”. Middle East Fertility Society Journal 12.23 (2007): 147-152.
  25. Chirotaw A. “In vivo and In vitro Antifertility Properties of Vernonia amygdalina”. Addis Ababa University School of Graduate Studies, Department of Zoology 14 (2006). 
Citation: Anyanwu GE., et al.“ Antifertility Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Adult Female Wistar Rats”. EC Clinical and Experimental Anatomy 3.6 (2020): 01-09.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 21, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.