Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.


Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 3 - 2016
Antibacterial Activity of Eucalyptus Honey Of Libyan against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria (MDR)
SalhaF, Bn Gweirif1, NeamaE AlyAhmed1, Maraia F2* and Elmhdwi2
1Department of Botany (Microbiology), University of Benghazi, Libya
2Department of Chemistry (Biochemistry), University of Benghazi, Libya
*Corresponding Author: Maraia F, Department of Chemistry (Biochemistry), University of Benghazi, Libya.
Received: March 15, 2016; Published: April 29, 2016
Citation: Maraia F., et al. “Antibacterial Activity of Eucalyptus Honey Of Libyan Against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria (MDR)”. EC Bacteriology and Virology Research 2.3 (2016): 115-120.
Abstract
The use of honey as a traditional remedy for microbial infections dates back to ancient times [1]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus honey oflibyan against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) by the method of agar well diffusion. Different concentrations (50.75, 80 and 100%) of honey sample where checked for their antimicrobial activities, using some medically important micro-organisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter sp and Staphylococcus aureus. The mean inhibition zone produced by honey when applied to gram–negative bacteria and gram–positive bacteria was significantly higher than that of the antibiotic used.
Keywords: Antibacterial; Honey; Micro-organisms
Introduction
Honey is the natural sweet substance from nectar or from the secretions of the living parts or excretions of plants which the honey bees collect and store in the honey [2]. Traditional importance and use of honey as therapeutics has been mentioned by the Egyptian and Sumerian physicians as early as 4000 years ago [3]. Secretions of the living parts or excretions of plants which the honey bees collect and store in the honey [2]. Traditional importance and use of honey as therapeutics has been mentioned by the Egyptian and Sumerian physicians as early as 4000 years ago [3].
Because honey inherits plants properties, its color, aroma, flavor, density, and physical and chemical properties depend on the flowers used by bees, although weather conditions as well as processing also influences its composition and properties [4]. As a result, the nutritional values and profiles vary accordingly and can thus influence the value of a specific honey for health promoting purposes [5]. The natural honey has been reported to contain about 200 substances.
The composition of honey is mainly sugars and water. The other constituents of honey are amino acids, antibiotic rich inhibiter, proteins, phenol antioxidants, and micronutrients [6]. The sugars in honey are sweeter and give more energy than artificial sweeteners [6]. These substances are of nutritional and health importance. Some of the vitamins found in honey include ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin and riboflavin along with minerals such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc [7-8].
The main honey plants in Libya including; Acacia spp, Pinus spp, Cupressus spp, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara, Hisbiscusrosa-sinensis, Eucalyptus cawaldulensis, Medicago sativa and many wild plants [9]. Of those types, Eucalyptus honey (Eucalyptus gonphocephala), is one of the main honeys produced and consumed in Libya especially in the north where its extensive trees flowering in November and December. Since, there is a few or rare scientific information published worldwide about Libyan honey, this work aimed to determine the main quality criteria of Libyan Eucalyptus honey via the evaluate the antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus honey of Libyan against bacteria.
Materials and Methods
Bacteria
The antibacterial properties of three honeys were tested against five bacterial isolates i.e., three reference strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 13353, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus NTCC 12493 and two were obtained from patients in an laboratory of microbiology in Banghazi medical center, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter sp.
Honey
Honey sample were used in this study obtained from apiary of the Umm Al-Qura. The honey sample was diluted by distilled water to 25, 50, 75, and 90%.
Antibiotic
Four antibiotic discs were selected for both gram–negative and gram–positive bacteria including;
Susceptibility testing of honey
A screening assay using well diffusion [10], Muller Hinton agar plates were inoculated by rubbing sterile cotton swabs after immerse100μ l bacterial suspensions on plates (overnight cultures grown at 37°C on nutrient agar and adjusted to 0.5 Mc Farland in sterile saline) over the entire surface of the plate. After inoculation 9mm diameter wells were cut into the surface of the agar using a sterile cork borer. Different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 90%) were added to the wells. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Control wells contained distilled water. Zones of inhibition were measured by using ruler. The diameter of zones was recorded. Each assay was carried out in triplicate.
Results
Honey sample showed marked inhibition of growth. The results of the assay of antibacterial activity of the honey sample with four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 90% v/v) used in this study are shown in Tables (1), Figure (1). The present work is an attempt to verify the role of Libyan honey as an antibacterial agent and compared with the antibacterial activities of antibiotics. In this study, the antibacterial activities of honey were assayed separately against five species of human pathogenic bacteria using the Hole-pale Diffusion assay.
Tables 1 demonstrate the effect of Eucalyptus honey on pathogenic bacteria based on the zone of clearing that was produced. All the different concentrations of honey showed antibacterial activity a large when tested against the multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR). The zones of inhibition ranged from 9-31mm.
Honey sample showed marked inhibition of growth on E.coli ATCC 13353 the maximum inhibition zone was shown at concentration of 90% as 31mm, which reduce to 21mm at 25%. Also the table showed similar effect on S.aureus NTCC 12493 grow with inhibition zone at concentration of 90% as 31mm, and the inhibition zone reduce to 20mm at 25% also, Eucalyptus honey prevented the growth of K.pneumonia with a mean of inhibition zone equal to 29mm in diameter at 90% concentration acinetobacter showed. While Eucalyptus honey prevented the growth of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 with a mean of inhibition zone equal to 27mm in diameter at 90% concentration which reduce to 16mm at 25%. Acinetobacter sp a little less inhibition zone with honey sample. These were 20mm at 90% and 9 mm at 25% concentration (Figure 2).
The antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus honey was higher than antibacterial activity for Antibiotic (Tables2), Figure (2 and 3). The antibacterial potency of honey has been attributed to its strong osmotic effect, naturally low pH [11], and the ability to produced hydrogen peroxide which plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of honey [12].
Bacteria Types Concentrations
%25 50% 75% 90%
Mean Of Inhibition Zone For Three Recurrences (Mm)
1- Escherichia coli ATCC 13353 21 27 30 31
2- Staphylococcus aureus NTCC 12493 20 26 28 31
3- Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 16 22 23 27
4- Acinetobacter sp. 9 13 19 20
5- Klebsillapneumonia 23 26 28 29
Table 1: Antibacterial activity (mm) of Eucalyptus honey at different concentrations against bacteria types (MDR).

Figure 1: Mean inhibition zone of Eucalyptus honey at differentconcentrations against bacteria types (MDR).

D:75% (Acinetobacter sp) E: 25% (K.pneumonia)
Figure 2: The inhibition zone by using (A:75%, B:90%, C:50%, D:75% and E: 50% ) concentration of Eucalyptus honey on bacteria types.

Antibiotic

Bacteria types

Colistinsulphate Amikacin Amoxycillin Gentamicin
1- Escherichia coli ATCC 13353 R I R R
2- Staphylococcus aureus NTCC 12493 R R R R
3-Enterococcusfaecalis ATCC 51299 R R R R
4- Acinetobacter sp. R R R R
5-Klebsilla pneumonia R R R R
Table 2: Effect of Antibiotic on Bacteria (MDR).
R= Resistant
I= Intermediate

Figure 3: Mean inhibition zone of types of Antibiotic on Bacteria.

A: E.coli B: S.aureus C: E.faecalis
D: Acinetobacter species E: K.pneumonia
Figure 4: The inhibition zone by effect of antibiotic on bacteria types.

Discussion
This study was undertaken to investigate in vitro antimicrobial activity of honey against certain microbial isolates. In the study, honey sample showed the antimicrobial activity and our result were in agreement with Willix., et al. [13] (1992) who found that honey inhibited the growth of S.aureus and E.coli and also in agreement with Bilal., et al. [14] (1998) who found honey exhibited a fairly good antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and positive bacteria and a remarkable activity was observed with S.aureus.
Eucalyptus honey had the highest antibacterial activity bactericidal was against E.coli, this result was in consistent with Chauhan., et al. [15] (2010) who reported that the most susceptible bacteria included E.coli. AI-Namma [16] (2009) also observed that honey has a greater inhibitory effect on Gram negative bacteria E.coli, S. typhi and P.aeruginosa were more susceptible than other test organisms. Results showed that the Libyan (Eucalyptus honey) had great activity antibacterial against all bacteria tested.
Bibliography
  1. Molan PC (1992). “The antibacterial activity of honey and the nature of antibacterial activity”. Bee world journal 73: 5–28.
  2. Moore OA., et al. “Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal 1: 2-10.1186/1472-6882-1-2.
  3. Maryann N (2000). “Honey as medicine has a long history New Zealand honey is focus on intensive research”. Health Facts 25: 4–5.
  4. Ramirez R and Montenegro YG (2004). “Certification del Origen botanico polen corbicular pertenecientealacomunade Litueche, VI Region de Chile”. Ciencia e investigacion agraria journal 31: 197-211.
  5. Bansal V., et al. (2005). “Honey-A remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility”. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 3: 305-309.
  6. Crane (1975). “History of honey, in Honey a Comprehensive Survey”. Edited by Crane E London: William Heinemann 439–488.
  7. White JW and Doner LW (1980). “Honey composition and properties. Bee keeping in the United States”. Handbook for Agriculture 335: 82–91.
  8. Bogdanov S., et al. (2008). “Honey for Nutrition and Health: A Review”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27(6): 677–689.
  9. Hussein MH (2000). “A review of beekeeping in Arab countries”. Bee world journal 81 (2): 56-71.
  10. Al Somal N., et al. (1994). “Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the Antibacterial Activity of Manuka Honey”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 87: 9-12.
  11. Kwakman P and Zaat S (2012). “Antibacterial components of honey”. Journal of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) 64: 48-55.
  12. Wahdan H (1998). “Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey”. Journal of Infection 26: 26-31.
  13. Willix DJ., et al. (1992). “A comparision of the sensitivity of wound-infecting infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of Manka honey and other honey”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 73(5): 388-94.
  14. Bilal AN., et al. (2010). (1998). “Antimicrobial activity of honey on selected microorganisms: A preliminary study”. Biomedical research journal 9: 51-54.
  15. Chauhan A., et al. (2010). “Antibacterial Activity of Raw and Processed Honey”. Electronic Journal of Biology 5(3): 58-66.
  16. Ali Namma RT (2009). “Evalution of in vitro inhibitory effect of honey on some microbial isolate”. Journal of Bacteriology Research 1(6): 64-67.
  17. Ajibola A., et al. “Improvement of some haematological parameters in albino rats withpure natural honey”. Journal of Bacteriology Research 2: 67–69.
Copyright: © 2016 Maraia F., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events

June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 12, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.