Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.


Opinion
Volume 2 Issue 3 - 2016
Biannually School Based Deworming by Mebendazole 500mg has Reduced the Worm Load Drastically in Bangladesh
Muhammad Mujibur Rahman*
Consultant, Filariasis Elimination and STH Control Program, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author: Muhammad Mujibur Rahman, Consultant, Filariasis Elimination and STH Control Program, Bangladesh.
Received: April 20, 2016; Published: April 29, 2016
Keywords: Mebendazole; Bangladesh; Trichuris trichiura; Helminths
Citation: Muhammad Mujibur Rahman. “Biannually School Based Deworming by Mebendazole 500mg has Reduced the Worm Load Drastically in Bangladesh”. EC Bacteriology and Virology Research 2.3 (2016): 113-114.
Bangladesh being in the tropical zone and having all the risk factors of all parasitic diseases harbors the biggest load of the parasitic disease burden. All 64 districts are endemic with 78 million infected with Ascaris lumbricoides (Round worm) which constituted 55% of population. About 51 million people (35% of population) are infected with Hook worm and 66 million people are infected with Trichuris trichiura (Whip worm) [1,2]. Among all the community 5-14 years age group are very vulnerable to the infection. It causes impairment of growth, development of cognition among Children. Hook worm and whip worm infection cause iron deficiency aneamia.
Prior to the initiation of programmatic activities, schools in three districts began piloting deworming programs in 2005 covering three ecological zones of the country (plain, coastal and hilly). The results found 79.8% of the Children were infected. In addition, 43.6% had moderate heavy intensities of Ascaris infections and 16.2% had moderate heavy intensities of Trichuris Trichiura infections.
Another follow up survey was conducted in 2007 in same places adding three more districts where deworming was done during MDA under Filariasis elimination program .The three districts were Panchagarh, Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat. The sample size was 1515. The following results were observed. 76.02% school children were found with no infection, 18.65% with single, 4.91% with double and 0.39% with triple infection.
On the basis of that survey results and in response to this, the Government of Bangladesh’s Ministry of Health established deworming programs through the National Filariasis Elimination with the support of various partners including the WHO, Children Without Worms (CWW) and Johnson & Johnson.
School based deworming program was scaled up gradually to 16 districts till 2006 to June 2007, 24 districts till May 2008 and finally it was expanded up to 64 districts by November 2008 with an aim to regular de-worming of 75-100% School aged children (WHA resolution 54.19 of 2001). Deworming is now conducted for all school aged 5-12 years old, through all primary level institutions (govt. and non-govt.) in the country.
From 2010, De-worming is conducted for a week instead of National de-worming Day and 5 years aged (baby class/pre-primary) group included as target. Deworming week has been shifted from May to April and from November to October during the year 2013. Tablet Mebendazole (500mg) instead of Tablet Albendazole is being used countrywide in deworming program from the November round of 2012.
Program data shows very high levels of reported coverage, (Annual Report 2011. Bangladesh) although actual pill ingestion may be less than reported according to the report of the post MDA validation survey organized by CDC Atlanta in 2010 in Munshigonj and Laxmipur districts. According to recommendation of that survey, MDA should be accompanied by IEC, advocacy, and training aimed at educating the public about soil transmitted helminths. Although the program has been successfully rolled out, it has suffered from certain gaps and compliance issues which undermine the quality and hence effectiveness.
To address those gaps FHI 360 with funding from USAID’s END in Asia Project began providing support for specific activities for STH Control in 2011. The overall goal is to strengthen and expand national NTD control efforts. More over a “Little Doctor” initiative was started from the same year with an aim to increase drug coverage as well as providing some important health related matters to other students’ especially personal hygiene. The Little Doctor initiative was highly accepted by the schools and their role was appreciated by every individual.
The subsequent follow-up stool surveys showed STH infection rate 27.2% in 2010, 15.7% in 2012-2013 and 8.28% in 2014-2015 from the 79.8% baseline infection rate. These joint efforts directly contribute to global goals to establish control of worm infections.
Bibliography
  1. De Silva., et al. “Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture”. Trends in Parasitology 19.12 (2003): 547-551.
  2. Hotez PJ and Kamath A. “Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden”. Plos Neglected tropical diseases 3.8 (2009): e412.
Copyright: © 2016 Muhammad Mujibur Rahman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.