Review Article
Volume 6 Issue 2 - 2020
History of Neuromuscular Blockers
Ricardo Bustamante Bozzo*
Hospital de Urgencias Asistencia Pública, Clínica Dávila, Santiago, Chile
*Corresponding Author: Ricardo Bustamante Bozzo, Hospital de Urgencias Asistencia Pública, Clínica Dávila, Santiago, Chile.
Received: December 12, 2019; Published: January 28, 2020




Abstract

Anesthesiologists administer anesthesia for almost 100 years without the use of the so-called muscle relaxants (from Morton in 1846, to Griffith in 1942). So, we were able to live a century without these drugs so related to our specialty and we have probably under utilized it in some opportunities and we have used it in anothers. I say wrongly called muscle relaxants, because the name is quite universal, because the most appropriate name is that of neuromuscular blockers (BNM), to differentiate them from thats drugs that act at the level of the central nervous system. If we were more purists, this name is not entirely adequate either, because succinylcholine, one of its most conspicuous representatives, does not block receptors and is therefore not a blocker, although it certainly produces relaxation of the striated muscles.

Keywords: Neuromuscular Blockers; Muscle Relaxation; Narcosis; Analgesia

References

  1. JE Utting. “The era of relaxant anaesthesia”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 69 (1992): 551-553.
  2. Raleigh Sir W. “The discovery of the large, rich and beautiful Empire of Guiana”. R Robinson, London (1596).
  3. Feldman Stanley. “From Poison Arrows to Prozac”. John Blake Publishing, Londres (2009).
  4. Steinberg D and Chalita J. “Versiones y controversias fascinantes sobre el curare”. En: Relajantes musculares en Anestesia y Terapia Intensiva. Álvarez, JA, González F y Bustamante R. Segunda Edición. Arán Ediciones. Madrid (2000).
  5. D’Anghiera PM. “De Rebus Oceanis et Orbe Novo, 1516”. Translation from latin by FA McNutt GP. Putnam’s Son, New York (1912).
  6. Raleigh W. “Breve y admirable descripción del Reino de Guyana”. Edimburgo (1820).
  7. Fuchs S. “Molecular Evolution of the Binding Site of Acetilcholine Receptor”. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 126 (1994).
  8. Humboldt A. “Maravillas y misterios de Venezuela. Diario de viajes 1799-1804”. Versión de viajes a las regiones equinocciales del nuevo continente. Editorial CEC, Caracas (1998).
  9. Waterton, Charles. “Wanderings in South America, 1879”. (Edición de 1839 de B. Fellowes, London, disponible en Proyecto Gutenberg).
  10. Bernard C and Bailliere et fils. Leçons sur les effects des substances toxiques et medicamenteuses (Paris, tr. Thornton) Williams and Wilkin Press, Baltimore (1961).
  11. Loewi O. “Über humorale übertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung”. Pflügers Archives 189 (1921): 239-242.
  12. Dale HH. “Chemical transmission of the effects of nerve impulses”. British Medical Journal 1 (1934): 835-841.
  13. Neher E and Sackman B. “Single-channel currents recorded from the membrane of the denervated frog muscle fibers”. Nature 260 (1979): 799-802.
  14. Gill RC. “White Water and Black Magic”. Henry Holy & Co., New York (1940).
  15. King H. “Curare alkaloids: 1, tubocurarine”. Journal of the Chemical Society (1935): 1381-1389. 
  16. Griffith HR and Johnson GE. “The use of curare in general anesthesia”. Anesthesiology 3 (1942): 418-420.
  17. Cullen SC. “Curare its rational use as an adjunct to anesthesia”. Surgery 20 (1946): 200.
  18. Gray TC and Halton J. “A Milestone in Anaesthesia? (d-Tubocurarine chloride)”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 39 (1946): 400-410.
  19. Goering M and Schulze am Esch J. “Arthur Läwen. Ein Wegbereiter moderner Anästhesieverfahren”. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 28 (1993): 315-325.
  20. Beecher HK and Todd DP. “A study of the deaths associated with anesthesia and surgery based on a study of 599.548 anesthesias in ten institutions 1948-1952”. Annals of Surgery 140 (1954): 2-34.
  21. Wylie WD and Churchill-Davidson HC. “A Practice of Anaesthesia”. Segunda Edición. Chicago: Year Book (1966).
  22. Organe GSW., et al. “Preliminary trial of bis-trimethylammonium decane and pentane di-iodide (C.10 and C.5) in man”. Lancet 1 (1949): 21-23.
  23. Hunt R and Taveau R. “On the physiological action of certain cholin derivatives and new methods for detecting cholin”. British Medical Journal 2 (1906): 1788-1791.
  24. Bovet D., et al. “Proprieta farmachodinamiche di alcuni derivati della succinilcolina dotati di azioni curarica”. Rend Inst Sup Sanita 12 (1949): 106.
  25. Brücke H., et al. “Bis cholinester von dicarbonsaüren als muskelrelaxantien in der narkose”. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 63 (1951): 464-572.
  26. Thesleff S. “An investigation of the muscle relaxing action of succinylcholine iodide in man”. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 25 (1952): 348-367.
  27. Foldes FF., et al. “Succinylcholine: a new approach to muscle relaxation in anesthesiology”. The New England Journal of Medicine 247 (1952): 596-603.
  28. Cozanitis DA. “Daniel Bovet, Nobelist: muscle relaxants in anaesthesia: The role played by two neglected protagonists”. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 166 (2016): 487-499.
  29. Everett AJ., et al. “Revision of the structures of (+)-tubocurarine chloride and (+)-chondrocurine”. Journal of the Chemical Society D (1970): 1020-1021.
  30. Dagnino J. “Historia de los relajantes musculares de síntesis”. En: Relajantes musculares en Anestesia y Terapia Intensiva. Álvarez, JA, González F y Bustamante R. Segunda Edición. Arán Ediciones. Madrid (2000).
  31. Cabarrocas E. “Perspectivas futuras de los relajantes musculares. En: Relajantes musculares en anestesia y terapia intensive”. Alvarez JA y Gonzalez F, eds. Editorial Libro del Año. Madrid (1996): 561-569.
  32. Foldes FF. “The Mode of Action of Quaternary Ammonium Type Neuromuscular Blocking Agents”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 26 (1964): 394-8.
  33. Brown DL, Brock-Utne JG. “The first structure-function approach to drug design in anaesthesia. “Dr. David S. Savage and pancuronium bromide”. Historical note”. Anaesthesia 52 (1997): 1202-1204.
  34. Hewett CL and Savage DS. Amino-steroids. “I. 16piperidino-and 16-morpholino-androstanes and -oestra-1,3,5(10)-trienes”. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1.5 (1966): 484-488.
  35. Hewett CL and Savage DS. “Amino-steroids. II. 6-Amino-androstanes and -pregnanes”. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1.7 (1967): 582-588.
  36. Baird WLM and Reid AM. “The neuromuscular blocking properties of a new steroid compound, pancuronium bromide”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 39 (1967): 775-7780.
  37. Boros M., et al. “Comparative clinical study of pipecuronium bromide and pancuronium bromide”. Arzneimittel Forschung 30 (1980): 389-393.
  38. Savage DS., et al. “The emergence of NC-45, The emergence of ORG NC-45,1-[(2ß,3a,5a,16ß,17ß)-3,17-bis(acetyloxy)-2-(1-piperi-dinyl)-androstan-16-YL]-1- methylpiperidinium bromide, from the pancuronium series”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 52 (1980): 3S-9S.
  39. Savarese JJ. “Does clinical anesthesia need new neuromuscular blocking agents?”. Anesthesiology 42 (1975): 236-239.
  40. Crul JF and Booij HDJ. “First clinical experiences with Org NC 45”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 52 (1980): 49S-52S.
  41. Agoston S., et al. “Neuromuscular blocking action of Org NC 45, a new pancuronium derivative, in anaesthetized patients”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 52 (1980): 53S-59S.
  42. Baird WLM., et al. “Structure: action relationships among some desacetoxy analogues of pancuronium and vecuronium in the anaesthetised cat”. Anesthesiology 69 (1988): 57-62.
  43. Marshall RJ., et al. “Research and development of aminosteroid neuromuscular blocking agents: past and future”. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 12.11 (1995): 5-10.
  44. Wierda JMKH., et al. “Clinical observations on the neuromuscular blocking action of Org 9426, a new steroidal non-depolarizing agent”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 64 (1990): 521-523.
  45. Goulden MR and Hunter JM. “I: Rapacuronium (Org 9487): do we have a replacement for succinylcholine?”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 82 (1999): 489-492.
  46. Wierda JMKH., et al. “Time course of action and endotraqueal intubating conditions of Org 9487, a new short-acting steroidal muscle relaxant: a comparison with succinylcholine”. Anesthesia and Analgesia 77 (1993): 579-584.
  47. Meakin GH., et al. “Bronchospasm after rocuronium in infants and children”. Anesthesiology 94 (2001): 925-927.
  48. Stenlake JB., et al. “Atracurium: Conception and inception”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 55 (1983): 3S-10S.
  49. Fisher DM., et al. “Elimination of atracurium in humans: contribution of Hofmann elimination and ester hydrolysis versus organ-based elimination”. Anesthesiology 65 (1986): 6-12.
  50. Wastila WB., et al. “Comparative pharmacology of cisatracurium (51W89), Atracurium, anf five isomers in cats”. Anesthesiology 85 (1996): 169-177.
  51. Belmont MR., et al. “The clinical neuromuscular pharmacology of 51W89 in patients receiving nitrous oxide/opioid/barbiturate anesthesia”. Anesthesiology 82 (1995): 1139-1145.
  52. Savarese JJ., et al. “The clinical neuromuscular pharmacology of mivacurium chloride (BW B1090U)”. Anesthesiology 68 (1988): 723.
Citation: Ricardo Bustamante Bozzo. “History of Neuromuscular Blockers”. EC Anaesthesia 6.2 (2020): 01-18.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 17, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk