Volume 1 Issue 1 - 2014
Revisiting Feeding Systems in Postmodern Ruminant Agriculture: Challenging the TMR
Akbar Nikkhah*
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Akbar Nikkhah, Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, National Elite Foundation, Iran.
Received: December 12, 2014; Published: December 22, 2014
Citation: Akbar Nikkhah. “Revisiting Feeding Systems in Postmodern Ruminant Agriculture: Challenging the TMR”. EC Agriculture 1.1 (2014): 15-16.
Abbreviations: TMR: Total Mixed Ration; SARA: Subacute Rumen Acidosis; CF: Component Feeding
This objective of this editorial article is to revisit the conventional concepts on feeding systems practiced in modern ruminant agriculture production. Total mixed ration (TMR) is a type of preparation that aims to ensure that a nutritionally balanced diet containing forage and concentrate is such uniformly mixed that any bout taken by the ruminant represents the diet calculated on paper. However, this definition is not met in more than many practical scenarios on-farm mainly due to carelessly adopted forage particle size, inappropriately chosen forage choice, inadequate dietary moisture, suboptimal feed items mixing, and considerable particle selection in the bunk.
Unsuccessfully prepared TMR will definitely not meet management goals. A key goal is to help stabilize rumen fermentation and minimize risks from metabolic disorders, such as subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). This adversely affects farm economics by increasing labour and machinery costs and jeopardizing animal health and longevity. Component feeding (CF) of forage and concentrate, conventionally considered risky [1], however, may not be as much disadvantageous as the suboptimal TMR could be. Should feeding frequency be managed thoughtfully to avoid sudden intake of highly fermentable rations, CF will not impair the functional rumen conditions nor will it stress the host ruminant. Recent discoveries suggest that even the very well-prepared standard TMR offers lactating dairy cows really no advantages over CF [2-4]. Moreover, a recent long-term continuous study suggests that lactating dairy cows fed three times daily a diet with forage to concentrate ratio of 50 : 50% produced more milk fat and protein on CF vs. TMR. Peripheral energy metabolism has been improved by feeding CF instead of TMR even in a few-week long study [4]. These findings introduce new challenges to traditional concepts on optimum feeding systems in global ruminant agriculture.
Education must take global initiatives to focus on philosophies and reasons for adopting certain feeding systems rather than defining and describing them based on the conventional science that may not hold in the new times. The world animal agriculture has encountered dramatic changes over the history from differently traditional structures into modern and postmodern forms. The evolution affects animal response to management strategies [5-7]. Many global ruminant industries meet domestic requirements for animal foods whereas many do not. However, in many countries with inadequate domestic production of ruminant foods, the ruminant industry is adequately modern. Aiming to overly maximize production in such regions could increase diseases and considerably reduce longevity and efficiency. This global situation indicates that optimum is certainly not maximum anymore in many ruminant industries around the globe. Even in those developing countries with modern animal agriculture, the insufficient animal food supply may not necessarily increase with maximizing productivity. This would be considered as over-modernization that it is a harmful challenge to the industry. In other words, formulating improper diets with risky amount of easily fermentable items and not taking rumen and ruminant physiology into account, and then trying to overcome the challenge with making TMR is not a wise approach. Problems must be prevented and not to be created with a hope for solutions.
To sum, education for scientists, extensionists and farmers will have to refine and re-establish scientific and management strategies based on the structure and demands of the new global animal agricultural industries. Conventional beliefs must not be considered undebated and clear-cut. This strategy is what the modern ruminant agriculture must go through towards sustainability.
The Ministry of Science Research and Technology, National Elite Foundation, and University of Zanjan, Iran, are gratefully acknowledged for supporting the author’s global programs of optimizing science edification in the third millennium.
  1. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
  2. Nikkhah A. “Total mixed ration vs. component feeding does not affect individually-fed high-producing dairy cow performance”. ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings. Des Moines, Iowa, USA: ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings, 15-18 March 2015.
  3. Nikkhah A. “Rumen microbial protein synthesis in total mixed ration vs. component fed high-producing dairy cows”. ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings. Des Moines, Iowa, USA: ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings, 15-18 March 2015.
  4. Nikkhah A. “Component vs. total mixed ration feeding improves peripheral energetics in high-producing lactating dairy cows”. ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings. Des Moines, Iowa, USA: ADSA/ASAS Midwest Meetings, 15-18 March 2015.
  5. Nikkhah A. “Chronophysiology of ruminant feeding behavior and metabolism: an evolutionary review”. Biological Rhythm Research 44.2 (2013): 197-218.
  6. Nikkhah A. “Bioscience of ruminant intake evolution: feeding time models”. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 2.4 (2011): 271-274.
  7. Nikkhah A. “Timing of feeding: a postmodern management strategy to modulate chronophysiological rhythms in rumen fermentation kinetics”. Biological Rhythm Research 45.4 (2014): 533-540.
Copyright: © 2014 Akbar Nikkhah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 09, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.