Research Article
Volume 1 Issue 4 - 2015
Energy Balance of Rice Production In Turkey: A Case Study For Kirklareli Province
Mehmet Firat Baran1*, Osman Gokdogan2, M Cuneyt Bagdatli3 and Korkmaz Belliturk4
1Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Adıyaman University, Turkey
2Department of Biosystem Engineering, Bingöl University, Turkey
3Department of Biosystem Engineering, Haci Bektas Veli University, Turkey
4Department of Soil Sciences and Plant Nutrition, Namik Kemal University, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: Mehmet Firat Baran, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Adiyaman University Faculty of Technology, 02040, Adiyaman/Turkey.
Received: December 02, 2014; Published: May 13, 2015
Citation: Mehmet Firat Baran., et al. “Energy Balance of Rice Production in Turkey: A Case Study for Kirklareli Province”. EC Agriculture 1.4 (2015): 167-173.
Abstract
In this research, it was aimed to make an energy input-output analysis of rice production in Kirklareli province of Thrace region of Turkey. Kirklareli province has good opportunities for rice production in term of soil and water. In order to determine the energy balance of rice, surveys were done in 123 rice farms of Kirklareli province. These farms were selected on Neyman method. The data obtained from research were collected from these farms by face to face questionnaires and observations. Input-output of energy was also determined by observation and survey methods in production season (2012-2013). In rice production, energy inputs were calculated as 50412.21 MJ.ha-1 and energy output was calculated as 148750 MJha-1. Energy inputs consist of 19293.75 MJha-1 (38.27%) irrigation energy, 12050.34 MJha-1 (23.90%) diesel fuel energy, 11211 MJha-1 (22.24%) chemical fertilizers, 3894.56 MJha-1 (7.73%) machinery energy, 3420 MJha-1 (6.78%) seed energy, 340.16 (0.67%) human labour energy and 202.40 MJha-1 (0.40%) chemicals energy. The use efficiency of energy, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy in rice production were calculated as 2.95; 0.17 kgMJ-1; 5.76 MJkg-1 and 98337.79 MJha-1, respectively. The shares of direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energy were 31684.25 MJha-1 (62.85%), 18727.96 MJha-1 (37.15%), 23053.91 MJha-1 (45.73%) and 27358.30 MJha-1 (54.27%), respectively.
Keywords: Energy use efficiency; Rice; specific energy; Turkey
Introduction
FAO’s global rice production forecast now stands at 730.2 million tonnes (486.9 million tonnes, milled basis), which is 1.5 million tonnes [1].
Rice cultivation is carried out 111 thousand hectares in Turkey and 900 thousand tons (540 thousand tons of rice equivalent) rice production is realized. In addition to Rice consumption is 600 thousand tons and rice yield is 8.14 ton ha-1 in Turkey agriculture areas [2].
Pishgar-Komleh et al. [3] reported that, “Rice (Oryza sativa) is the hugely important food crop for the world’s population, especially in East, South, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize (Zea mays) [4]". Researches were done on energy input-output analysis in agricultural products.
For example, researches have been made on energy usage activities of rice and maize [5], rice [3,6,7], wheat [8], lentil [9], barley [10], chick pea [11], maize [12] and barley [13] etc. In this study, it was aimed to determine energy input-output balance of rice production in Kirklareli province of Turkey.
Materials and Methods
The province of Kirklareli is located in the Thrace region of the Turkey. Kirklareli province is between 41° 44’ - 42° 00’ north latitude and 26° 53’ - 41° 44’ east meridians (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The location of study area (Kırklareli Province).
The land area of Kirklareli province is 6555 km2. Kirklareli is neighboured by Bulgaria with a length of 159 km border the north; Black Sea coastline 58 km from the east; Edirne province in the west; Istanbul province in the southeast; and Tekirdag province in the south [14].
In order to determine the energy balances of rice plant, observations and surveys were performed in rice farms of Kirklareli Province. Observations and surveys were performed face to face with 123 rice producers, in production season during in 2012-2013. Surveys were made in totally 123 rice producers in Kirklareli and farms were determined by using Neyman method "1" [15]. According to Yamane (2001), number of rice growers to which the survey was applied.
In the formula, n, is the required sample size; N, the number of rice growers in total population; Nh, the number of the population in h (small or large); Sh, the variance of h stratification; D2 = d2/z2; is d, the precision and z is the reliability coefficient (1.96 which represents 95% confidence). The permissible error in sample population was defined to be 5% and the sample size was calculated to be 48 for 95% reliability. Total energy input in unit area (ha) constitutes of each total of input’s energy. Human labour, machinery, chemical fertilizers, chemicals, water of irrigation, diesel fuel and rice seed were the inputs calculated. Rice yield was the output calculated.
As energy inputs, human labour energy, machinery energy, chemical fertilizers energy, chemicals energy, water of irrigation energy, diesel fuel energy and rice seed energy values were taken into consideration. In the agricultural production in Table 1, energy equivalents of input and outputs were taken as energy values.
Energy balance calculations were made to determine the rice production productivity. The units shown in Table 1 was used to find out the values of the inputs in rice production. Input amounts were calculated and then these input data were multiplied by the energy equivalent coefficient. When determining the energy equivalent coefficients, previous energy analysis studies (sources) were used. By adding energy equivalents of all inputs in MJ unit, the total energy equivalent was found. For example, in order to determine the energy usage efficiency in wheat production, Mohammadi., et al. [16] reported that, “The energy ratio (energy use efficiency), energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were calculated using the following formulates [17,18]”.
In the calculation of quantities of inputs used in rice production, energy equivalences in Table 1 were used. Quantities of inputs were calculated according to hectare and they were multiplied with the equivalence of these inputs. Resources of previous researches were used in determining the coefficients of energy equivalence. Other data was used from information by organizations related to rice producers.
The results were tabulated after the analysis of data was done using Microsoft Excel program considering the inputs. Examining the values of rice input - output and calculations were given in Table 2. Kocturk and Engindeniz [19] reported that, “The input energy is also classified into direct and indirect and renewable and non-renewable forms. The indirect energy consists of pesticide and fertilizer while the direct energy includes human and animal power, diesel and electricity energy used in the production process. On the other hand, non-renewable energy includes petrol, diesel, electricity, chemicals, fertilizers, machinery and renewable energy consists of human and animal [17,20]”. Energy input - output and efficiency calculations in rice production in Table 3 was given. Energy equivalents of input and outputs in rice agriculture are given in Table 1.
Inputs and outputs Unit Energy Equivalent Coefficient Sources
Inputs Unit Values (MJ/unit) Sources
Human labour h 1.96 Karaagac., et al., Mani., et al. [21,22]
Machinery h 64.80 Kizilaslan, Singh [23,24]
Harvest h 87.63 Tipi., et al., Hetz, Canakci [23,25,26]
  Chemical Fertilizers
Nitrogen kg 60.60 Singh. [24]
Phosphorous kg 11.10 Singh. [24]
Potassium kg 6.70 Singh. [24]
Sulphur kg 1.20 Mohammadi., et al. Esengun., et al. [18,27]
Chemicals kg 101.20 Yaldiz., et al. [28]
Diesel fuel l 56.31 Demircan., et al.[29]
Irrigation m3 0.63 Yaldiz., et al. [28]
Seed kg 15.20 Yadav., et al. [28]
Outputs Unit Values (MJ/unit) Sources
Rice kg 17 Kitani. [30]
Table 1: Energy equivalents of inputs and outputs in agricultural production of rice.
Results and Discussion
During the studies in the farms, the amount of rice produced per hectare during the 2012-2013 production season was calculated as an average of 8750 kg. In rice production, it is noteworthy that water of irrigation, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers energy were used as the highest input.In this study, cultivations for rice production and the energy output-input analysis of rice production in 2012-2013 were given in Table 2. It can be seen that the first, second and third of the highest energy of inputs in rice production are 38.27% irrigation energy, 23.90% diesel fuel energy and 22.24% chemical fertilizers energy were the inputs calculated.
If the average values are examined by considering Table 2, it can be seen that the highest energy inputs in rice production has Energy inputs consist of 19293.75 MJ ha-1 (38.27%) water of irrigation energy, 12050.34 MJ ha-1 (23.90%) diesel fuel energy, 11211 MJ ha-1 (22.24%) chemical fertilizers, 3894.56 MJ ha-1 (7.73%) machinery energy, 3420 MJ ha-1 (6.78%) seed energy, 340.16 (0.67%) human labour energy and 202.40 MJ ha-1 (0.40%) chemicals energy were the inputs calculated. In this study, irrigation energy had the biggest share 38.27%. Similarly, in previous studies, Alipour., et al. [6] found that in rice study the irrigation energy had the biggest share with 18487.40 MJ ha-1.
Inputs Unit Energy equivalent (MJ / unit) Input used per hectare (unit ha-1) Energy value (MJ ha-1) Rate (%)
Human labour 340.16 0.67
Land prepartion h 1.96 23.20 45.47  
Planting h 1.96 8.60 16.86  
Cultivation h 1.96 122 239.12  
Harvesting-Threshing h 1.96 18.50 36.26  
Transportation h 1.96 1.25 2.45  
Machinery   3894.56 7.73
Land prepartion h 64.80 10.70 693.36  
Cultivation h 64.80 44.50 2883.60  
Harvesting-Threshing h 87.63 2.70 236.60  
Transportation h 64.80 1.25 81  
Chemical fertilizers   11211 22.24
Nitrogen kg 60.60 165 9999
Phosphorous kg 11.10 60 666
Potassium kg 6.70 60 402
Sulfur kg 1.20 120 144
Chemicals kg 101.20 2 202.40 0.40
Irrigation m3 0.63 30625 19293.75 38.27
Diesel fuel l 56.31 214 12050.34 23.90
Seed kg 15.20 225 3420 6.78
Total inputs   50412.21 100
Outputs Unit Energy equivalent
(MJ / unit)
Output per hectare
(unit ha-1)
Energy value
(MJ ha-1)
Rate
(%)
Rice kg 17 8750 148750 100.00
Energy Ratio 2.95
Table 2: Energy input-output analysis in rice production.
The results indicated that human labour energy input was calculated 340.16 MJ ha-1. Human labour energy was used for tractor and farm operations such as land prepartion, planting, cultivation, harvesting-threshing and transportation. Diesel energy input was calculated 12050.34 MJ ha-1. Machinery energy input was calculated 3894.56 MJ ha-1.
Machinery energy and diesel energy were used for operating tractor to perform the farm operations such as land prepartion, cultivation, harvesting-threshing and transportation. The amount of chemical fertilizers used for rice production were 405 kg ha-1. Nitrogen was the most common chemical fertilizer used 165 kg ha-1, followed by sulfur 120 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1 phosphorous and 60 kg ha-1 potassium in rice production.
In rice production, energy input, energy output, energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy in rice production were calculated as 50412.21 MJ ha-1, 148750 MJ ha-1, 2.95; 0.17 kg MJ-1; 5.76 MJ kg-1 and 98337.79 MJ ha-1, respectively. In previous studies, Yadav., et al. [5], Alipour., et al. [6], Pishgar-Komleh [3], Ibrahim and Ibrahim [7] calculated energy use efficiency in rice studies as 7.66, 2.19, 1.53, 4.10 respectively.
Calculations Unit Values
Rice kg ha-1 8750
Energy input MJ ha-1 50412.21
Energy output MJ ha-1 148750
Energy use efficiency   2.95
Energy productivity kg MJ-1 0.17
Specific energy MJ kg-1 5.76
Net energy MJ ha-1 98337.79
Table 3: Energy input-output and efficiency calculations in rice production.
The distribution of inputs used in the production of rice according to the direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energy groups were given in Table 4. It can be seen from the Table 4, the total energy input consumed could be classified as direct 62.85%, indirect 37.15% in rice production. Similarly, in previous studies, wheat [6], lentil [9], irrigated wheat [10] were found that ratio of direct energy is higher than ratio of indirect energy. It can be seen from the Table 4, the total energy input consumed could be classified as renewable 45.73% and non-renewable 54.27% in rice production.
Similary, maize [31], garlic [32], wheat [33], wheat [34], wheat [6], lentil [9], wheat [35], barley [10,13] were found that ratio of non-renewable energy is higher than ratio of renewable energy [36].
Type of energy Energy input (MJ ha-1) Ratio (%)
Direct energya 31684.25 62.85
Indirect energyb 18727.96 37.15
Total 50412.21 100.00
Renewable energyc 23053.91 45.73
Non-renewable energyd 27358.30 54.27
Total 50412.21 100.00
Table 4: Energy input in the form of direct, and direct renewable and non-renewable energy for rice production.
Conclusion
In research, energy inputs were calculated as 50412.21 MJha-1 and energy output was calculated as 148750 MJha-1. Energy inputs consist of 19293.75 MJha-1 (38.27%) irrigation energy, 12050.34 MJha-1 (23.90%) diesel fuel energy, 11211 MJha-1 (22.24%) chemical fertilizers, 3894.56 MJha-1 (7.73%) machinery energy, 3420 MJha-1 (6.78%) seed energy, 340.16 (0.67%) human labour energy and 202.40 MJha-1 (0.40%) chemicals energy. The use efficiency of energy, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy in rice production were calculated as 2.95; 0.17 kg MJ-1; 5.76 MJkg-1 and 98337.79 MJha-1, respectively. The shares of direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energy were 31684.25 MJha-1 (62.85%), 18727.96 MJha-1 (37.15%), 23053.91 MJha-1 (45.73%) and 27358.30 MJha-1 (54.27%), respectively.
According to the evaluated results, rice production is a profitable production in terms of energy usage. The research results indicate that ratio of non-renewable energy is higher than ratio of renewable energy and ratio of indirect energy is higher than ratio of direct energy. On the other hand the application of manure and other organic all fertilizers are very important for soil quality and also farmers budget. Farm fertilizer (cow manure, green manure, compost, vermicompost etc.) can also be used in rice production, instead of chemical fertilizers, which make up an important part of the inputs. Similarly, these all situations should be considered in rice production.
Bibliography
    1. FAO (2015) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation Statistics.
    2. TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute). “Statistical Data Base of Plant Production”. (2014) Turkey.
    3. Pishgar-Komleh, SH., et al. “Energy and economic analysis of rice production under different farm levels in Guilan province of Iran”. Energy 36.10 (2011): 5824-5831.
    4. FAO. (2006) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation Statistics.
    5. Yadav SN., et al. “Energy input-output analysis and mechanization status for cultivation of rice and maize crops in Sikkim”. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 15.3 (2013): 108-116.
    6. Alipour A., et al. “Study and determination of energy consumption to produce conventional rice of the Guilan province”. Research in Agricultural Engineering 58.3 (2012): 99-106.
    7. Ibrahim HY and HI Ibrahim. “Energy use analysis for rice production in Nasarawa state, Nigeria”. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 15.3 (2012): 649-655.
    8. Marakoglu T and K Carman. “Energy balance of direct seeding applications used in wheat production in middle Anatolia”. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5.10 (2010): 988-992.
    9. Mirzaee E., et al. 11th International Congress on Mechanization and Energy in Agriculture Congress” (2011): 383-387.
    10. Azizi A and S Heidari. “A comparative study on energy balance and economical indices in irrigated and dry land barley production systems”. International Journal of Environment Science andTechnology 10.5 (2013): 1019-1028.
    11. Marakoglu T., et al. “Application of reduced soil tillage and non-tillage agriculture techniques in Harran plain (Second crop maize and sesame growing)”. Journal of Agricultural Machinery Science 6.4 (2010): 229-235.
    12. Konak M., et al. “Energy balance at corn production”. Agriculture Faculty Journal 18.34 (2004): 28-30.
    13. Baran MF and O Gokdogan. “Energy input-output analysis of barley production in Thrace region of Turkey”. American-Eurasian journal of agricultural & environmental Sciences 14.11 (2014): 1255-1261.
    14. Anonymous. (2014) Kirklareli Special Provincial Administration.
    15. Yamane T. (2001) “Basic Sampling Methods”. Publishing of Literature 53 Istanbul.
    16. Mohammadi A., et al. “Energy inputs-yield relationship and cost analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran”. Renewable Energy 35.5 (2010): 1071-1075.
    17. Mandal KG., et al. “Bioenergy and economic analysis of soybean based crop production systems in central India”. Biomass and Bioenergy 23.5 (2002): 337-345.
    18. Mohammadi A., et al. “Energy use and economical analysis of potato production in Iran a case study: Ardabil province”. Energy Conversion Management 49.12 (2008): 3566-3570.
    19. Kocturk OM and S Engindeniz. “Energy and cost analysis of sultana grape growing: A case study of Manisa, west Turkey”. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4.10 (2009): 938-943.
    20. Singh H., et al. “Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in Arid Zone India (Part II)”. Energy Conversion and Management 44.7 (2003): 1053-1067.
    21. Karaagac MA., et al. “Energy balance of wheat and maize crops production in Haciali undertaking”. 11th International Congress on Mechanization and Energy in Agriculture Congress Turkey (2011): 388-391.
    22. Mani I., et al. “Variation in energy consumption in production of wheat-maize with varying altitudes in hill regions of Himachal Pradesh, India”. Energy 32.12 (2007): 2336-2339.
    23. Kizilaslan H. “Input-output energy analysis of cherries production in Tokat province of Turkey”. Applied Energy 86.7-8 (2009): 1354-1358.
    24. Singh JM. “On farm energy use pattern in different cropping systems in Haryana, India. (2002) International Institute of Management University of Flensburg, Sustainable Energy Systems and Management. Master of Science, Germany.
    25. Hetz EJ. “Energy utilization in Chilean agriculture”. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia Africa and LatinAmerica 23.2 (1992): 52-56.
    26. Canakci M., et al. “Energy use pattern of some field crops and vegetable production: Case study for Antalya Region, Turkey”. Energy and Conversion Management 46.4 (2005): 655-666.
    27. Esengun K., et al. “Input-output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey”. EnergyConversion and Management 48.2 (2007): 592-598.
    28. Yaldiz O., et al. “Energy usage in production of field crops in Turkey”. 5th international congress on mechanization and energy in agriculture, Kusadasi, Turkey (1993): 527-536.
    29. Demircan V., et al. “Energy   and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province”. Energy Conversion and Management 47.13-14 (2006): 1761-1769.
    30. Kitani O. “Energy for biological systems”. In: The International Commission of Agricultural Engineering, editor, CIGR handbook of agricultural engineering: Energy and biomass engineering, Vol. V. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, (1999): 13-42.
    31. Vural H and I Efecan. “An analysis of energy use and input costs for maize production in Turkey”. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 10.2 (2012): 613-616.
    32. Samavatean N., et al. “An analysis of energy use and relation between energy inputs and yield, costs and income of garlic production in Iran”. Renewable Energy 36.6 (2011): 1808-1813.
    33. Tipi T., et al. “An analysis of energy use and input costs for wheat production in Turkey”. Journal ofFood, Agriculture & Environment 7.2 (2009): 352-356.
    34. Shahin S., et al. “Effect of farm size on energy ratio for wheat production: A case study from Ardabil province of Iran”. American-Eurasian journal of agricultural & environmental Sciences 3.4 (2008): 604-608.
    35. Ghorbani R., et al. “A case study of energy use and economical analysis of irrigated and dry land wheat production systems”. Applied Energy 88.1 (2011): 283-288.
    36. Azarpour E. “Determination of energy balance and energy indices in wheat production under watered farming in north of Iran”. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7.4 (2012): 250-255.
Copyright: © 2015 Mehmet Firat Baran., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


News and Events

Researcher's Column Special Issue for the Month of September

Editorial office of E-Cronicon (EC) is here with a great initiation to plan a Researcher's Column special issue for the month of September. The vision of this Researcher's Column is to provide an Awareness among the society with the novel information that you will be contributing. I hope to have the participation of every author who are in association with E-Cronicon to this special issue by making it a successful initiation. Due date to share your insight is September 20, 2019. Best Column article will be picked by the Editorial office and will be provided with an "Appreciation Certificate". Take a smallest step by dropping your opinions to editor@ecronicon.uk for a biggest success.

Best Article of the Issue

The Editors of respective journals will elect one Best Article after each issue release and the authors of the selected article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".

Submission Timeline for November Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcomes the authors for submission of novel research towards November issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before September 27, 2019.

Certification for each Publication

Corresponding Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" with all the Co-Authors included as a token of appreciation for publishing their work with respective journals.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards respective journals.

Latest Articles

Recently published articles will be updated immediately after publication in respective journals.