Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 4 - 2021
Factors Influence on Rural Livelihood Diversification and Well-Being of South Tripura District
Mithun Mog1* Debasis Neogi1 and Mrinmoy Pratim Bharadwaz2
1Department of Management, Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, India
2Mphil, Manager-Biostatistics, Alpha MD Pvt. Limited, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding Author: Mithun Mog, Department of Management, Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, India.
Received: July 04, 2021; Published: September 29, 2021


This study focuses on rural livelihood diversification and well-being of the south district of Tripura. A Multistage systematic random sampling technique was used for data gathering. First, a block was selected for panchayat identification, in second stage gram panchayat and at last household level for final selection of sample. Inferential statistics was adopted to analyses data. A wealth index was calculated based study population characteristics- demographic, socio-economic, institutional factors was considered. Result shows that majority of the household was from medium wealth category. However, one - fourth family was from wealthier category. Nevertheless, only 22.5% households were in still improving stage in terms of overall household development. Further, a large section of the Scheduled Tribe (63.41%) household are in medium wealth category followed by scheduled caste (51.72%) and other backward class (48.48%). Regression analysis shows that educational qualification, food security, bank credits, households’ expenditure and household location in urban areas are substantial influence factors for diversifying into high paid income and salaried job for livelihood of Tripura. Tripura has much potential to grow in primary and secondary sectors, thereby improving their technical skills, arrange warehouse, connect with potential market place for local manufacturers in order to improve living standard and rural economic growth of its rural population that can be prevent from excess rural diversification and from unstable employment in rural Tripura.

Keywords: Agriculture Sector; Livelihood Diversification; Rural Diversification; Social Classes


  1. Ellis F. “Survey article: Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification”. Journal of Development Studies1 (1998): 1-38.
  2. FAO and World Bank. Farming Systems and Poverty – Improving Farmer’s Livelihoods in a Changing World”. Rome and Washington D.C (2001).
  3. Reardon T., et al. “Household income diversification into rural non- farm activities. In: Transforming the Rural Non-farm Economy, Eds: S. Haggblade, P. Hazell and T. Reardon. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (2006).
  4. Bhowmik C., et al. “Comparative analysis of MCDM methods for the evaluation of optimum green energy sources: A case study”. International Journal of Decision Support System Technology (IJDSST)4 (2019): 1-28.
  5. Business Standard. “Pineapple growers are in ‘double trouble’ in Tripura” (2016).
  6. Khatun D and Roy BC. “Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints”. Agricultural Economics Research Review 25 (2012): 115-124.
  7. Chakmraborty D and Barman DR. “A Study on Impact of Motivational Factors on the Growth of Rural Entrepreneurs of Assam”. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (2014).
  8. Fafchamps M and AR Quisumbing. “Social roles, human capital, and the intra-household division of labor: Evidence from Pakistan”. Oxford Economic Papers1 (2003): 36-80.
  9. Srivastava N and Srivastava R. “Women, work, and employment outcomes in rural India”. Economic and Political Weekly (2010): 49-63.
  10. Barrett CB., et al. “Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: Concepts, dynamics, and policy implications”. Food Policy 26 (2001): 315-331.
  11. Lanjouw P andA Shariff. “Rural non-farm employment in India: Access, incomes and poverty impact”. Economic and Political Weekly 39 (2004): 4429-4446.
  12. Losch B., et al. “A new emerging rural world: An overview of rural change in Africa”. Montpellier: CIRAD (2013).
  13. Devi KG. “Economic Empowerment of Women in India”. Journal of Social and Economic Development1 (2009): 138-141.
  14. Datta J., et al. “Livelihood Status of Tribal People Practicing Shifting (Jhum) Cultivation in Tripura State of North-East India”. Tropical Agricultural Research (2015).
  15. Debnath P., et al. “Resource productivity of rice cultivation in Tripura: A spatial analysis §”. Agricultural Economics Research Review1 (2017): 173-177.
  16. Sinha A. “Prospect of rubber plantation in NE region with special reference to the state of Tripura. In: Seminar-cum-workshop on ‘saving soil and croplands”. Soil Conservation Development, Assam, Guwahati (2007).
  17. Nath S and Chaudhuri PS. “Human-induced biological invasions in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations of Tripura (India) – Pontoscolex corthrurus as a case study”. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences 2 (2010): 360-369.
  18. Saha B and Bahal R. “Livelihood diversification pattern among the farmers of West Bengal”. Economic Affairs3 (2014): 321-334.
  19. Singh K., et al. “Technical Efficiency of Freshwater Aquaculture and its Determinants in Tripura, India”. The Agricultural Economics Research Review (2009).
  20. De Janvry A and Sadoulet E. “Income strategies among rural households in Mexico: The role of off-farm activities”. World Development (2001).
  21. Rahut DB and M Micevska Scharf. “Livelihood diversification strategies in the Himalayas”. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 56 (2012a): 558-582.
  22. Losch B., et al. “Structural transformation and rural change revisited: Challenges for late developing countries in a globalizing world. Agence Française de Developpement and the World Bank: Washington, DC: World Bank Publications (2012).
  23. Khatun D and Roy BC. “Rural Livelihood Diversification in West Bengal: Nature and Extent”. Agricultural Economics Research Review (2016).
  24. Abeje MT., et al. “Exploring drivers of livelihood diversification and its effect on adoption of sustainable land management practices in the upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia”. Sustain (2019).
  25. Community Well-being Index 2019, Metro area and country ranking report (2019).
Citation: Mithun Mog., et al. “Factors Influence on Rural Livelihood Diversification and Well-Being of South Tripura District”. EC Agriculture 7.4 (2021): 07-15.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.