Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 2 - 2021
Major Weeds of Ecuador. I. Rice
Ricardo Labrada*
Ex-FAO Technical Officer, Plant Protection Service, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Ricardo Labrada, Ex-FAO Technical Officer, Plant Protection Service, Rome, Italy.
Received: December 09, 2020; Published: January 29, 2021




Abstract

Rice is one of the main components of the diet in Ecuador, a country in South America. The population that lives on the coast is the one that consumes the most this cereal, so its production is important for the country's food sustainability. Weeds are among major constraints to rice production there. The present study aimed to evaluate weed presence in rice crops in Ecuador. A survey was carried out in 140 ha of the main rice growing areas of the country. To this end, total weed and prevailing species cover were visually assessed using a scale from 0 to 4, where 1- 1 - 5% of weed cover and 4- more than 50%. With these values, Absolute and Relative Frequencies, ΣI-sum of cover values, Im- average cover value, and finally SI- index of infestation severity (F by Im) were determined. Results show that the most important species in transplanted rice were Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.), Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria and Eclipta prostrata, while in direct-seeded rice E. colona, Weedy Rice, Leptochloa fusca var. uninervia and Sesbania herbacea prevail. Limnocharis flava was frequent in spots permanently flooded. The abundance of weedy rice presence in both rice crops suggests a high seed bank in soil as well as the presence of weed seeds in rice seeds, and also of water management problems in uneven fields of transplanted rice. High SI of L. fusca var. uninervia in direct-seeded rice may be due to repeated applications of ACCase inhibitors, such as cyhalofop butyl and profoxydim, which suggest possible presence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Results roughly indicate that improved weed management may bring substantial rice yield increases in Ecuador.

Keywords: Ecuador; Rice; Weed; Weedy Rice; Echinochloa colona

References

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Citation: Ricardo Labrada. “Major Weeds of Ecuador. I. Rice”. EC Agriculture 7.2 (2021): 18-23.

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