Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 8 - 2020
Essential Oil Percentage of Celery and Parsley and Their Components as Affected by Method Extraction
Mohammed Sayed Aly Mohammed*, Mohamed Salah Hussein Tawfik and Ahmed El-Gohary Ibrahim
Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Researches, Pharmaceutical and Drugs Industries Vision Research, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Mohammed Sayed Aly Mohammed, Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Researches, Pharmaceutical and Drugs Industries Vision Research, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Received: July 01, 2020; Published: July 23, 2020


Medicinal and aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial properties. Product of plant origin has become an exciting area of research in drug discovery and development. Medicinal and aromatic plants are mainly exploited for essential oil extraction for many application in industries. This study aims to evaluate two extraction methods on essential oil percentage and components of celery and parsley seeds. Celery essential oil percentage gave insignificant effect according to the two used methods, meanwhile parsley essential oil percentage appeared significant values, the main components of the two plants were decreased with extracted by evaporator, (limonene of celery and Myristicin of parsley). Limonene was decreased from 71.32% with hydro distillation to 42.04% with evaporator hydro distillation, myristicin was lower from 77.58% to 53.69% according to the previously methods. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were decreased in two plants with evaporator hydro distillation, but oxygenated compounds were increased and the decrease was very low in both two plants, meanwhile sesquiterpene hydrocarbons cleared decrease in celery and increase in parsley. According to previously, recommended by application the two methods (hydrodistillation of water and evaporator) for essential oil extraction of both of celery and parsley seeds.

Keywords: Essential Oil; Celery; Parsley


  1. Chevallier A. “The Encyclopedia of medicinal plants”. DK publishing Inc., New York (1998): 61.
  2. Bjeldonees LF and Kim IS. “Pathalid components of Celery essential oil”. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 42 (1977): 2333-2335.
  3. Satyavait GV and Raina MK. “Medicinal plants of India”. Pyb. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India 1 (1976): 80-107. 
  4. EDQM. “Essential Oils in Herbal Drugs (Monograph 2.8.12.)”. In: European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.), 8th Edition, Strasbourg (2014): 273-274.
  5. Clevenger JF. “Apparatus for determination of essential oil”. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 17 (1928): 346-349.
  6. Kapás A., et al. “The kinetic of essential oil separation from fennel by microwave assisted hydro distillation (MWHD), UPB Scientific Bulletin”. Series B: Chemistry and Materials Science 73 (2011): 113-120. 
  7. E Fathi and F Sefidkon. “Influence of drying and extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Eucalyptus sargentii”. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 14 (2012): 1035-1042.
  8. Rahimi P Hashem., et al. “Comparative analyses of the volatile components of Citrus auranttuim L. flower using Ultrasonic-Assisted Headspace SPME and hydro distillation combined with GC-MS and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research 1.2 (2014): 83-91.
  9. Gavahian M., et al. “Comparison of extraction parameters and extracted essential oils from Mentha piperita L. using hydro distillation and steam distillation”. International Food Research Journal 22.1 (2015): 283-288.
  10. Jamil R., et al. “Extraction of essential oil from Murraya koenigii leaves. Poitential study for application natural based insect repellent”. App Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 1.4 (2016).
  11. Siti Nur Atiquah Othman., et al. “Essential oils from Malaysian citrus (Rutaceae) medicinal plants”. Medicine 3 (2016): 13.
  12. SC Ibeh., et al. “Extraction of Oicimum gratissimum using different distillation techniques”. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 6 (2017).
  13. Mahfud Mahfud., et al. “Extraction of essential oil from Bangle Zingiber purpureum Roxb.) by hydro distillation and steam distillation methods”. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metahurgy 52.5 (2017): 791-796.
  14. J Philippe., et al. “Kasan in the Indian celewey seed oils”. Journal of Essential Oil Research 14 (2002): 276-277.
  15. Ayman E., et al. “Using natural additives for increasing shelf life of Pizza”. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 89.1 (2011).
  16. Samef Baananou., et al. “Antiulcerogenic activity of Apuim graveolens seeds oils isolated by supercritical CO2”. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6.10 (2012): 756-762, 2012.
  17. M Mordalizadeh., et al. “Microwave-Assisted and conventional hydro distillation of essential oils from Apium graveolens L”. Asian Journal of Chemistry 25.1 (2013): 79-81.
  18. Naglaa HM Hassanen., et al. “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of celery (Apuim graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) herb and sees essential oils”. The International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 4.3 (2015): 284-296.
  19. Mahmoud KA. “Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of parsley extract (Petroselinum crispum) on diabetic rats”. Isotopes of Uranium and Radium in Indian Rivers 43.2 (2011): 341-357.
  20. Leila Mahmood., et al. “Fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae) essential oil on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West wood) (Hemiptera: Aleytrodidue) adults under green house conditions”. Journal of Plant Protection Research 54.3 (2014).
  21. Hussein El-Zaeddi., et al. “Irrigation dose and plant density affect the essential oil content and sensory quality of parsley (Petroselinum sativum)”. Scientia Horticulturae 206 (2016): 1-6.
  22. Jonathan Dcraft and William N Setzer. “The volatile components of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill)) Fuss”. American Journal of Essential oils and Natural Products 5.1 (2017): 27-32.  
  23. Benevides PJC., et al. “Phenylpropanoids and neolignans from Piper regnellii”. Phytochemistry 52 (1999): 339-343.
  24. Calabrese N and Circella G. Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Essential Oils. Vienna (1996): 308-311.
  25. Delespaul Q., et al. “The Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils as Determined by Different Screening Methods”. Journal of Essential Oil Research 12.2 (2000): 256-266.
  26. Feldheim W. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 15 (1999): 46-53.
  27. Lam LKT and Zheng B. “Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 39.4 (1991): 660-662.
  28. Lamarti A., et al. Journal of Essential Oil Research 3 (1991).
  29. Lawrence BM. Parfum Flavour 16 (1991): 81-82.
  30. Lawrence BM. Parfum Flavour 19 (1994): 72-75.
  31. Mohamed E Ibrahim. “Essential oils isolated from leaves of Egyptian verbena triphylla herb using different extraction methods”. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research 9.4 (2016): 01-07.
  32. Rashwan O., et al. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University 39 (2001): 141-149. 
  33. Chemical Abstracts 138 (2003): 373778.
  34. Saltron F., et al. Rivista Ital. Eppos (1996): 373-374.
  35. Spraul MH., et al. Chemie Mikrobiologie Technologie der Lebensmittel 13 (1991): 179-182.
  36. Teisedre PL and Waterhouse AL. “Inhibition of Oxidation of Human Low-Density Lipoproteins by Phenolic Substances in Different Essential Oils Varieties”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48.9 (2000): 3801-3805.
  37. Zheng G., et al. “Myristicin: a potential cancer chemopreventive agent from parsley leaf oil”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40.1 (1992): 107-110.
  38. Wulf LW., et al. “High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation of the naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, related aromatic ethers and falcarinol”. Journal of Chromatography A 161 (1978): 271-278.
Citation: Mohammed Sayed Aly Mohammed. “Essential Oil Percentage of Celery and Parsley and Their Components as Affected by Method Extraction”. EC Agriculture 6.8 (2020): 45-52.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.