Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 8 - 2020
Isolation, Identification and Pathogenicity of Anthracnose of Grapevine and its Possible Management
Bakhat Zaman1*, Nasir Ahmed Rajput1, Hussainullah1 and Monib Ullah2
1Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Bakhat Zaman, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Received: June 13, 2020; Published: July 16, 2020


Grape (Vitis vinifera) is the most remunerative and economically important fruit crop and has a lot of uses. It is commonly attacked by a wide range of fungus species in which the most prominent is Elsinoe ampelina which cause anthracnose disease of grapevine. An in vitro trial was conducted in the Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural University Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2016 - 2017 in order to properly manage Anthracnose disease of grape with systemic fungicides and plant extracts. Five systemic fungicides namely Diniconazole, Thiophanate-methyl, Myclobutanil, Difenoconazole and Hexaconazole were tested at 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm in order to check their efficacy against percent growth inhibition of Elsinoe ampelina. Hexaconazole and Myclobutanil at 200 ppm inhibited 88.33% and 86.42% radial growth respectively and found to be significantly superior to Diniconazole and Thiophanate-methyl at 200 ppm. Difenoconazole was significantly inferior against Elsinoe ampelina. Different plant extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), onion (Allium cepa), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) were evaluated at 3 different concentrations 10%, 20% and 30% against the growth inhibition of Elsinoe ampelina. Among all the plant extracts, the highest concentration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was found to be significantly best in radial growth inhibition of Elsinoe ampelina followed by neem (Azadirachta indica), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa), each plant extracts were found to be significantly different from one another. Another field experiment was also conducted in which Diniconazole, Thiophanate methyl, Myclobutanil, Difenoconazole and Hexaconazole and plant extracts namely neem (Azadirachta indica), onion (Allium cepa), ginger (Zingiber officinale) garlic (Allium sativum) and Lantana (Lantana camara) were further evaluated under greenhouse condition, among the five tested fungicides, Hexaconazole was found to be the most effective fungicide in controlling the disease incidence, for which the disease incidence was recorded very low (40.93%) followed by Myclobutanil and Diniconazole, while Difenoconazole was found to be less effective in controlling the disease incidence. Similarly among the five plant extracts, Lantana extract was found to be highly effective in controlling disease incidence, for which the disease incidence was recorded very low (38.04%) followed by ginger (Zingiber officinale) and neem (Azadirachta indica), while onion (Allium cepa) was found to be less effective in controlling disease incidence.

Keywords: Pathogenicity; Identification; Management


  1. Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. “Annual Report” (2009-2010).
  2. “Food and Agriculture Organization. Govt. of Pakistan”. FAO year Book Production 51 (1997).
  3. Anderson HW. “Diseases of fruit crops”. McGraw-Hill New York (1956): 377-382.
  4. Begum F., et al. “Integrated control of seedling mortality of lentil caused by Sclerotium rolfsii”. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology's 23 (2006): 60-65.
  5. Chadha KL. “Indian viticulture scenario. “International symposium on grapes production and proceesing”. Baramati India 12 (2006).
  6. Commenil P., et al. “Purification and properties of an extracellular lipase from the fungus Botrytis cinerea”. Lipids 30 (1995): 351-356.
  7. Carisse O., et al. “A model to estimate the amount of primary inoculums of Elsinoë ampelina”. Plant Disease 95 (2011):1167-1171.
  8. Chatta SK. “Biology, perpetuation and control of grape vine anthracnose caused by Sphaceloma ampelinum”. Sprinagar 33 (1992).
  9. Emmett RW., et al. “Fungicide evaluation for control of grapes vine black spot or anthracnose”. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 36 (1981): 40.
  10. Egan MJ., et al. “Genomes, free radicals and plant cell invasion: recent developments in plant pathogenic fungi”. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11 (2008): 367-372.
  11. Ferreira RB., et al. “Engineering grapes vine for increased resistance to fungal pathogens without compromising wine stability”. Trends in Biotechnology 22 (2004): 168-173.
  12. Gupta JS., et al. “Effect of metabolites from different host plants on conidial germination of Colletotrichum graminicola and capsici”. Geobios 8 (1981): 226-228.
  13. Hopkins DL., et al. “A greenhouse method for screening grapes vine seedlings for resistance to anthracnose”. Horticultural Science 35 (2000): 89-91.
  14. Hopkins DL., et al. “Fungicidal control of bunch grapes diseases in Florida”. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 86 (1973): 329-333.
  15. Kars I., et al. “Necrotizing activity of five Botrytis cinerea endopolygalacturonases produced in Pichia pastoris”. The Plant Journal 43 (2005): 213-225.
  16. Mirica IIRC., et al. “Anthracnose: Compendium of Grapes Diseases”. American Phyto-pathological Society St. Paul, MN (1988): 18-19.
  17. Nene YL., et al. “Fungicides in plant disease control”. Oxford and IBH publishing Co (1993): 691.
  18. Pampanagouda B. “Studies on anthracnose of grapes caused by Sphaceloma ampelinum”. Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad (2000):113.
  19. Suhag LS., et al. “Third intern Symposium”. Subtrop Trop Hort Bangalore (1972): 207-208.
  20. Sastry MNL., et al. “Efficiency of some fungicides in the control of anthracnose of grapes vine”. Pesticides 23 (1989): 29-30.
  21. Sundar AR., et al. “In vitro Antagonism of Trichoderma against two Fungal Pathogens of Castor”. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 23 (1995): 152-155.
  22. Suhag LS., et al. “Epidemiology of grapes vine anthracnose caused by Sphaceloma ampelinumin”. North Indian Phytopathology 30 (1977): 460-465.
  23. Thind SK., et al. “Epidemiology of powdery mildew, downy mildew and Anthracnose diseases of grapes vine”. Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherlands I (2004): 621-638.
  24. Tanaka S., et al. “Studies on the grapes anthracnose Elsinoe ampelina cultural aspects of the fungus”. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture 25 (1974): 917-946.
  25. Winkler AJ., et al. “General Viticulture second edition”. Berkley Univ. of Calif. Press (1947).
  26. Winkler AJ. “General viticulture”. Berkeley Los Angeles London: Uni. Of Calif. Press (1970).
  27. Wheeler BEJ. “An Introduction to plant diseases”. John Wiley and Sons Limited, London (1969): 301.


Citation: Bakhat Zaman., et al. “Isolation, Identification and Pathogenicity of Anthracnose of Grapevine and its Possible Management”. EC Agriculture 6.8 (2020): 19-28.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.