Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 8 - 2020
Changes in Soil Thermal Properties and Microbial Loads of Ultisols Under Cassava Mill Effluent Discharge in Uyo, Nigeria
Ini D Edem*, Uduak C Udo-inyang and Samuel A Inyang
Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management University of Uyo, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ini D Edem, Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management University of Uyo, Nigeria..
Received: June 19, 2020; Published: July 16, 2020




Abstract

A study was conducted to examine the changes in soil thermal properties and microbial indices of Ultisols under cassava effluent discharge at varying periods. Three cassava mill sites at Uyo discharging cassava effluent within three periods: less than 5 years discharge, 10 years discharge and 15 years discharges were used. Adjacent plots to each of the sites served as control. Soil samples were collected on the surface along the discharge strides in the morning, afternoon and evening after soil temperature was measured with digital thermometer. Volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity and retentivity were estimated to assess the thermal properties while total bacterial count, total fungal count for mold were the parameters used to assed the microbial counts as influenced by cassava mill effluent discharge. Data were descriptively analysed and analysis of variance at 5% probability level was used to compare the mean. Among the discharge periods, volumetric heat capacity for less than 5 years (2.80 Jm-3), 10 years (2.70 Jm-3) and 15 years (3.00 Jm-3) were significantly higher than the control (2.0 Jm-3). Thermal conductivity (Jcm-1sec-1) was significantly different among the periods which followed the trend control = 15 years > 10 years > 5 years with values 2.63 = 2.59 > 2.50 > 2.45 respectively. Thermal diffusivity (cm2sec-1) was significantly low in site with less than 5 year effluent (8.71) compared to 10 years (9.46) and 15 years (11.63). Total bacterial count was significantly high in site with 15 years discharge period (6.36 cfug-1) compared to 10 years (2.88 cfug-1), less than 5 years (2.72 cfug-1) and control (3.83 cfug-1). Total fungal count for mould was significantly high in site with 15 years discharge period (4.32 cfug-1) compared to 10 years (3.27 cfug-1), less than 5 years (2.18 cfug-1) and control (3.77 cfug-1). Significantly high thermal conductivity at site receiving effluent for 15 years enhanced the population of microbes in the soil compared to other periods.

Keywords: Fungi; Microbes; Heat; Thermal Conductivity; Retentivity; Effluent

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Citation: Ini D Edem., et al. “Changes in Soil Thermal Properties and Microbial Loads of Ultisols Under Cassava Mill Effluent Discharge in Uyo, Nigeria”. EC Agriculture 6.8 (2020): 03-10

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