Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 4 - 2020
Chitinase Activity of Biocontrol Fungi Isolated from the Golden Potato Cyst Nematode and their Antagonist Potential
Khadijeh Abbasi1, Robert Wick2* and Doustmorad Zafari3
1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
3Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Robert Wick, Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Received: February 22, 2020; Published: March 10, 2020


Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the nematode eggshell. Chitinases are widely distributed in fungi and play important roles in the degradation of chitin. This study aimed to screen the chitinolytic ability of fungi isolated from Globodera rostochiensis and to evaluate their biocontrol potentialOne hundred and fifty-four fungal isolates were compared for their ability to degrade chitin by the N-acetyl-glucosamine-dinitrosalicylate method. Ten isolates with high chitinase activity were selected for further characterization. Of the 10 selected isolates, three chitinase enzymes were evaluated using three substrates. Based on the results of our chitinase assay, Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium muscarium, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma atroviridae had the highest activity. We selected these four isolates to determine the optimum pH, temperature and reaction time. Zymography was also used to demonstrate chitinase activity of the four isolates. The biocontrol potential of 10 selected isolates was assayed in water-agar in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. L. muscarium had the most potential and Fusarium solani was the least based on the number of parasitized juveniles and eggs in water-agar. Greenhouse trials showed T. atroviridae and B. bassiana had the highest dry root weight and tuber yield.

Keywords: Biocontrol; Chitinase; Enzymatic Activity; Fungi; Globodera rostochiensis


  • Wollenweber HW. “Krankheiten und Beschädigungen der Kartoffel”. Arbeiten des Forschungsdienst für Kartoffelbau 7 (1923): 1-56.
  • Behrens E. “Globodera Skarbilovich, 1959, eine selbständige Gattung in der Unterfamilie Heteroderinae Skarbilovich, 1947 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)”. Vortragstagung zu Aktuellen Problemen der Phytonematologie (1975): 12-26. 
  • Gitty M., et al. “Occurrence of potato golden cyst nematode in Iran and its distribution in Hamedan province”. Agricultural Biotechnology 10 (2011): 53-61.
  • Sharon E., et al. “Improved attachment and parasitism of Trichoderma on Meloidogyne javanica in vitro”. European Journal of Plant Pathology 123 (2009): 291-299.
  • Tobin JD., et al. “Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and fosthiazate on the multiplication rate of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallid and G. rostochiensis) in potato crops grown under UK field conditions”. Biological Control 46 (2008): 194-201.
  • López Lima D., et al. “89% reduction of a potato cyst nematode population using biological control and rotation”. Agronomy Sustainable Development 33 (2013): 425-431.
  • Sharon, E., et al. “Biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum”. Phytopathology 91 (2001): 687-693.
  • Safari Motlagh MR and Samimi Z. “Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. as biological agents in some of plant pathogens”. Annals of Bioloical Research 4 (2013): 173-179.
  • Saifullah A and Khan NU. “Low temperature scanning electron microscopic studies on the interaction of Globodera rostochiensis woll. and Trichoderma harzianum rifai”. Pakistan Jouranl of Botany 46 (2014): 357-361.
  • Santos MC., et al. “Biology, growth parameters and enzymatic activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia isolates from potato cyst and root-knot nematodes”. Nematology 15 (2013): 493-504.
  • Gortari MC and Hours RA. “Fungal chitinases and their biological role in the antagonism onto nematode eggs. a review”. Mycological Progress 7 (2008): 221-238.
  • Tikhonov VE., et al. “Purification and characterization of chitinases from the nematophagous fungi Verticillium chlamydosporium and V. suchlasporium”. Fungal Genetics and Biology 35 (2002): 67-78.
  • Morton CO., et al. “Infection of plant parasitic nematodes by nematoghagous fungi - a review of the application of molecular biology to understand infection processes and to improve biological control”. Nematology 6 (2004): 161-170.
  • Zeilinger S., et al. “Chitinase gene expression during mycoparasitic interaction of Trichoderma harzianum with its host”. Fungal Genetics and Biology 26 (1999): 131-140.
  • Monreal J and Reese ET. “The chitinase of Sarratia marcescens”. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 15 (1969): 689-696.
  • Bradford MM. “A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of microgram”. Annals of Biochemistry 72 (1976): 248-254.
  • Davis BJ. “Disc electrophoresis II. Method and application to human serum protein”. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 121 (1964): 404-427.
  • Herrera-Estrella A and Chet I. “Chitinases in biological control”. Experientia Supplementum-Basel 87 (1999): 171-184.
  • Sankaranarayanan, C., et al. “Parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita eggs by Fusarium oxysporum and other fungi”. Indian Journal of Nematology 32 (2002): 1.
  • Citation: Robert Wick., et al. “Chitinase Activity of Biocontrol Fungi Isolated from the Golden Potato Cyst Nematode and their Antagonist Potential”. EC Agriculture 6.4 (2020): 05-15.

    PubMed Indexed Article

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

    PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6536005

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

    PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6764777

    EC Neurology
    Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

    PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5065347

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

    PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6711478

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

    PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6133253

    EC Psychology and Psychiatry
    Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

    PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6226033

    EC Anaesthesia
    Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

    PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6155992

    EC Orthopaedics
    Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

    PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6124505

    EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
    Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

    PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6169793

    EC Dental Science
    Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

    PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5743211

    EC Microbiology
    Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

    PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5999047

    EC Microbiology
    Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC4774560

    EC Microbiology
    The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

    PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC4933318

    EC Microbiology
    Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

    PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5450819

    EC Microbiology
    A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

    PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC4533840

    EC Neurology
    Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

    PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5214344

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

    PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5604476

    EC Neurology
    Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

    PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5510658

    EC Neurology
    Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5267489

    EC Ophthalmology
    OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

    PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5766278

    EC Neurology
    Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

    PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6483108

    EC Microbiology
    Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

    PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6448571

    EC Nutrition
    Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

    PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6086333

    EC Ophthalmology
    REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

    PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6508883

    EC Gynaecology
    Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

    PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6513001

    EC Dental Science
    Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

    PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6758937

    EC Microbiology
    Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

    PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6824723

    EC Microbiology
    Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

    PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6824726

    EC Neurology
    Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

    PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6746603

    EC Psychology and Psychiatry
    Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

    PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6604646

    EC Anaesthesia
    Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

    PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6690616

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

    PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6741290

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

    PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6800226

    EC Neurology
    Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC5898812

    EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

    PMCID: PMC6133268

    News and Events

    November Issue Release

    We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

    Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

    ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 12, 2022.

    Certificate of Publication

    ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

    Best Article of the Issue

    Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

    Certifying for Review

    ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

    Latest Articles

    The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.